Open Access
Review Article

Table 1

Methods to determine (oo)cyst infectivity and their application in exposure assessment.

Methods Parasites Applications

Detection in naturally contaminated samples Determination of the efficacy of control measuresa
Bioassays −
Ability of (oo)cysts to induce infection of animals
Cp River water [210]
Wastewater [109]
Mussels, clams, oysters, cockles [67,69,70,71,88,90,143]
Simple matrixb:
   H2O2-based disinfectants [176]
   Chlorine dioxide [198]
   Ozone [141,187], ozone + monochloramine/ + chlorine [27,28]
   Salinity: 10, 20 and 30 ppt of salt at 10 °C or 20 °C (12 w) [68]
   UV [11,46,148,154,187,195,198]
   US [172]
   Pasteurization [99]
   Storage 15 °C (9 m) [115]
   Storage 4 °C and 10 °C (8 w) [142]
   Storage −10 °C to + 35 °C (24 w) [68]
    Food matrix:
   UV − Fresh apple cider [98]
   PUV − Raspberries [131]
   HHP, e-beam, microwaves − Oysters [42,43]
   Heat (steam cooking) − Mussels [91]
   Pasteurization − Milk [99]
   Storage 6 °C (4 w) – Apple [150]
G     Wastewater [82,109,140] Simple matrix:
Raw and chlorinated drinking water [111]   Ozone [74]
     UV [37,139,140,154,196]
     Gamma irradiation [203]
T Water [12,110,219]
Oysters, mussels [63]
Simple matrix:
       Chlorine [222]
       Ozone [59,222]
      UV [59,220,223]
       HHP [145]
      Gamma-irradiation [55]
      Radiofrequency [221]
      Storage −10 °C to 70 °C (up to 54 m) [53]
    Food matrix:
      HHP − Raspberries [146]
      Storage 4 °C (up to 8 w) − Raspberries and blueberries [126]
Cell culture infection −   Cp Wastewater [85]
Water [133,190]
Simple matrix:
      Chlorine [15,193], Chlorine dioxide [198], MOS [122]
Ability of (oo)cysts to invade and infect cells       Ozone [122,187]
      UV [83,122,123,186,187,195,198]
      Heat 38 °C to 70 °C [193]
      Storage 15 °C (9 m) [115]
    Food matrix:
      Organic acids and hydrogen peroxide − Fruit juices [127]
Ch NA Simple matrix:
      UV [118]
T NA Simple matrix:
      Chlorine [218]
      Iodophore-based disinfectants, formalin, acidified ethanol [218]
      Ozone [59]
      UV [59,223]
a

Relevant for water and food industries;

b

Simple matrix: water or buffer.

NA: No available data. Cp: C. parvum; Ch: C. hominis; G: Giardia duodenalis; T: Toxoplasma gondii.

H2O2: hydrogen peroxide; MOS: mixed-oxidant solution; UV: ultraviolet; PUV: pulsed-ultraviolet; HHP: high hydrostatic pressure; US: ultrasound; m: months; w: weeks.

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