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Table 1.

Biology, vector competence, and vector status of Malagasy mosquito species naturally/experimentally associated with WNV in Madagascar.

Species Natural infection (Ni)
Biology
Vector competence (Vc)
Vector statuts References
Locality Date Biotopeµ FB Density IR Dose TR Dose Ni Biology Vc
Ad. madagascarica Madagascar Nov-12 Lake O LAb CV [75] [15]
Ae. albocephalus Madagascar Dec-82 Forest GF LAb CV [34] [34, 106]
Ae. dalzieli Senegal GF R PV [1] [127]
Ae. madagascarensis Madagascar July-83 Forest A R PV [34] [34]
Ae. circumluteolus Madagascar Dec-82 Forest A LAb CV [34] [65, 106, 127]
Ae. aegypti Madagascar Nov-82 Forest A LAb 16% 107.2±0.3 PFU/mL ≤16% 107.2±0.3 PFU/mL CV [34] [4, 34] [134]
Ae. albopictus USA A* Ab 90% 107.2±0.3 PFU/mL 73% 107.2±0.3 PFU/mL CV [135] [34] [134]
An. coustani Madagascar Nov-12 Lake GF* Ab CV [75] [127]
An. brunnipes Madagascar May- 88 Village A R PV [34] [124]
An. maculipalpis Madagascar Dec-85 Village GF LAb PV [34] [34]
An. pauliani Madagascar Jun-13 Village GF LAb PV [75] [14]
Cq. metallica Uganda A R PV [116] [66, 127]
Cx. poicilipes Senegal GF Ab PV [131] [127]
Cx. antennatus Madagascar Mar-88 Village GF* Ab CV [34] [127]
Cx. decens Madagascar Feb, April, Dec-85 Forest edge GF* Ab CV [34] [34, 129]
Cx. guiarti Ivory Coast A R PV [1] [34]
Cx. neavei Sengal GF R PV [131] [32]
Cx. pipiens USA GF LAb 17–100% 105.2 ±0.2–107.1±0.1 PFU/mL 2–33% 105.2 ±0.2–107.1±0.1 PFU/mL CV [20] [127] [38, 134]
Cx. quinquefasciatus Madagascar Feb-86 Forest egde GF* Ab 8–86% 107.1±0.1 PFU/mL 2–52% 107.1±0.1 PFU/mL MV [34] [34] [38]
Cx. scottii + Madagascar July-83 Village A R PV [34] [34]
Cx. tritaeniorhynchus Madagascar Dec-82 Forest GF* Ab 10–90% 100.79–102.87 SMICLD50/mL 100% 10−1.06 SMICLD50/mL MV [34] [14] [48]
Cx. univittatus Madagascar Feb-86 Forest egde GF Ab 51% 105.8–7.2 PFU/mL 100% 7.0 log 10 CPD50/mL MV [34] [127] [25, 70]
Cx. vansomereni R 42% 105.8–7.2 PFU/mL 17–100% [129] [70]
Cx. weschei CAR A R PV [24] [34]
Lt. tigripes CAR R PV [116] [129]
Ma. africana Senegal A R 50% 105.8–7.2 PFU/mL PV [1] [34] [70]
Ma. uniformis Madagascar June-13 Lake GF* Ab 43% 105.8–7.2 PFU/mL MV [75] [75] [70]
Mi. hispida Senegal A R PV [131] [127]
Mi. splendens Senegal unknown R PV [131] [127]

In bold are mosquitoes found naturally infected with WNV in Madagascar.

+

This species was not specified and is morphologically close to Culex scottii [34].

Ni: natural infection, Locality: place where a mosquito was found naturally WNV-positive, USA: United States of America, CAR: Central African Republic. Date: periods of WNV detection in Madagascar in mosquitoes, Biotope: biotope where the mosquitoes found WNV-positive were collected, Lake: village around lake.

FB: feeding behavior, O: ornithophilic, Z: zoophilic (ruminants), A: anthropophilic, GF: general feeder (Z, O, A).

Ab: abundant, LAb: locally abundant, R: rare species.

*

Mosquitoe species captured under shrubs and undergrowth during the day [34].

Vc: Vector competence (infection rate: IR, transmission rate: TR). CPD50: cytopathic dose 50, SMICLD50: suckling mouse intracerebral 50% lethal doses, PFU: plaque-forming unit.

MV: major WNV vector, CV: candidate vector, PV: potential vector.

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