Open Access
Research Article
Issue
Parasite
Volume 21, 2014
Article Number 26
Number of page(s) 9
DOI https://doi.org/10.1051/parasite/2014028
Published online 17 June 2014

© A.D. Winters and M. Faisal , published by EDP Sciences, 2014

Introduction

Over the past three decades, a steady decline in amphipods of the genus Diporeia has been observed in four of the Laurentian Great Lakes in North America. This is concerning since Diporeia spp. constitute an important component of the food web and traditionally have been a major prey item for a number of commercial fisheries (e.g., lake whitefish, Coregonus clupeaformis) [3, 6, 18, 21, 22]. In a previous study [20], the authors reported on the presence of multiple parasites and fungi infecting Diporeia spp. collected from Lake Michigan (USA). Among these, microsporidia were found in 0.68% (21/3, 082) of Diporeia collected from nine sites in Lake Michigan between 1980 and 2007. Microsporidian spores were observed in high densities where they filled and replaced muscle tissue. Melanized encapsulating host hemocytes were often observed in or near masses of microsporidians, suggesting that the parasite is pathogenic to Diporeia.

Microsporidia are a diverse and ubiquitous group of obligate intracellular single-cell fungi with an extraordinary host range; from protists to humans. In shrimp and crayfish species, microsporidia infect multiple tissues and organs, including the heart, connective tissues, hepatopancreas, hemocyte-forming organs, and other tissues [9, 15, 17], causing pathologies ranging from inflammation to tissue destruction. For this reason, microsporidiosis has been called one of the most globally significant diseases of freshwater crayfish globally [1]. In amphipod crustaceans of the family Gammaridae, vertically transmitted microsporidia have commonly been reported to occur at high prevalences and have been shown to have a range of effects on host behavior, fitness, population size, stability, and sex ratio [7, 8, 10, 12, 16, 26].

While a wide genetic diversity of microsporidia has been reported to infect gammarids in France, Scotland [26], and Iceland [13], little is known about microsporidia infecting gammarids in the Great Lakes basin. In one study, Ryan and Kohler et al. [24] used PCR and DNA sequence analyses to reveal the presence of two microsporidia (Dictyocoela sp. and Microsporidium sp.) infecting Gammarus pseudolimnaeus populations from four cool-water streams in Southwestern Michigan, USA, providing evidence that a range of genetically diverse microsporidia are impacting amphipod populations in the Great Lakes. While multiple studies have employed light microscopy techniques to investigate microsporidia infections in Diporeia, due to the lack of phylogenetic and detailed ultrastructural studies, the taxonomic affiliation of microsporidia infecting Diporeia is currently unknown. Herein, we report the phylogenetic relationship of a microsporidian infecting Lake Superior Diporeia to other microsporidia reported to infect amphipods. We also shed light on morphological criteria of importance in classifying the novel microsporidian. The potential ecological impact of the observed microsporidian infection is discussed.

Materials and methods

Sample collection and morphological analysis

A total of 338 Diporeia were collected from four sites in Lake Superior for determining the presence of microsporidian infection (Fig. 1). Samples were collected by taking Ponar grabs (sampling area 0.251 × 0.251 m/8.2 L) at depths between 18 and 136 m. Benthic samples were sieved (mesh = 0.25 mm) and Diporeia were identified according to Bousfield [4] and placed in either 10% neutral buffered formalin for histopathological analysis or filter-sterile (0.2 µm) 80% ethanol for molecular analysis. An average of 80 amphipods was sampled from each site. The taxonomic system for microsporidia infecting Diporeia was based on the morphological criteria used for taxonomy detailed in Wittner and Weiss [29].

thumbnail Figure 1

Sampling sites in Lake Superior where Diporeia sp. (Amphipoda, Gammaridae) were collected.

For histopathological analysis, amphipods preserved in formalin were dehydrated in a graded series of alcohols, embedded in paraffin, cut into 3–4-μm-thick serial sections, and stained with Mayer’s hematoxylin and eosin [19]. Ultrastructural studies were performed on a representative, heavily infected Diporeia sample collected from site SU-01M in Lake Superior that was embedded in a paraffin block. The sample was deparaffinized, post-fixed, and processed for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). For TEM, ultra-thin sections (60–100 nm) were stained with 2% (w/v) uranyl acetate in 50% ethanol followed by Reynold’s lead citrate and examined in a JEM-100 CX II electron microscope at an accelerating voltage of 100 kV.

Molecular analysis

Genomic DNA from an infected Diporeia collected from a site near SU-01M (SU-23B) was extracted using the DNeasy DNA extraction kit (QIAGEN) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. PCR amplification of microsporidian 16S rDNA was amplified using the microsporidian 16S primers V1f (forward) 5′-CACCAGGTTGATTCTGCCTGAC-30 [27] and 580r (reverse) 5′-GGTCCGTGTTTCAAGACGG-3′ [2]. A negative control containing no DNA was included in the PCR reaction. The resulting PCR product was visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis to confirm only a single fragment was amplified, cloned using a TOPO TA Cloning Kit® (Invitrogen, CA, USA) following the manufacturer’s protocol, cultured on Luria-Bertani agar plates (Fisher Scientific Inc., PA, USA) containing 50 μg/mL Kanamycin as directed by the manufacturer’s protocol, and sequenced using the M13f (5′-GTT TTC CCA GTC ACG AC-3′), M13r (5′-CAG GAAACA GCT ATG ACC-3′), and amplification primers. The resulting sequence (1899 bp) was deposited in GenBank (KF537632).

The 16S rRNA gene sequence was submitted for a BLAST (National Center for Biotechnology Information) search and highly similar matches were included in the dataset for phylogenetic analysis. Selection of sequences included in phylogenetic analyses was based on the findings of Krebes et al. [16]. A total of 22 microsporidian 16S rDNA sequences (the sequence isolated from the Diporeia microsporidian, 13 Dictyocoela sequences, seven sequences from other microsporidians that parasitize other aquatic animals, and one outgroup sequence from Enterocytozoon bieneusi, a microsporidian from a human host) were aligned with ClustalW as implemented in MEGA 5.0 [25] using default settings. The length of final alignment was 1354 nucleotide positions. Estimation of pairwise genetic distances among sequences was also performed in MEGA 5.0 using p-distance as a measure of genetic distance.

Bayesian inference phylogenetic construction was performed with MrBayes v 3.1.2 [14] using the transitional model [23] with γ distributed rates (GTR + G) as selected by the program jModelTest [5]. Bayesian analysis included four Monte Carlo Markov chains (MCMC) for 2,000,000 generations with one tree retained every 1000th generation. After discarding the burn-in samples (first 25% of samples), the remaining data were used to generate a 50% majority-consensus tree.

Dictyocoela diporeiae n. sp.

urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:72ECFCEA-C50E-46FE-9562-13E86B0643A5

Type host: Diporeia sp., Amphipoda, Gammaridea.

Type locality: United States: Lake Superior, 46.60° N & 84.81° W, depth = 60 m.

Type material: Reference materials are deposited at the National Museum of Natural History of the Smithsonian Institution, Accession number: 1231538.

Ribosomal DNA sequence: GenBank accession number KF537632.

Etymology: The specific epithet refers to the genus of the host, Diporeia.

Description

Spores replace muscle tissue throughout the body of the host. Mature spores measuring 1.99 ± 0.09 μm long by 1.19 ± 0.05 μm wide. Eight coils of isofilar polar filaments arranged in single ranks. Polar filaments measuring 71.27 ± 3.33 nm in diameter. A lamellar polaroplast composed of ordered concentric membranes found at the apical end of the spore surrounding the polar filament. A distinct posterior vacuole at the distal end of the spore.

Prevalence, pathology, and morphological characterization

In stained histological sections, microsporidian infections were observed in Diporeia collected from three of the four sites sampled. Prevalences for SU-01, SU-20B, SU-22B, and SU-23B were 2.94 (2/68), 1.98 (2/101), 3.23 (3/93), and 0.00% (0/70), respectively, making the overall prevalence for Lake Superior 2.11% (7/332). These infections were always associated with muscle tissues where infected tissues appeared to be replaced with spores. Differentiated, basophilic or melanized encapsulating host hemocytes were often observed in or near masses of microsporidians (Fig. 2). In one amphipod, microsporidians were observed filling and replacing the muscle tissue surrounding the ovaries (Fig. 3) where a melanized hemocytic encapsulation was present near the ovaries (Fig. 4).

thumbnail Figure 2

Histological sections (hematoxylin and eosin) of Dictyocoela diporeiae n. sp. developmental stages in an infected Diporeia sp. collected from Lake Superior. Notice the individual spores (small arrow) replacing skeletal muscle and melanized hemocytic infiltration in adjacent muscle tissue (large arrows). Scale bar = 25 µm.

thumbnail Figure 3

Histological sections (hematoxylin and eosin) of a Diporeia sp. sample collected from Lake Superior. Notice the microsporidians (Dictyocoela diporeiae n. sp.) filling and replacing muscle tissues (small arrows) surrounding the ovaries (large arrows). Scale bar = 100 µm.

thumbnail Figure 4

Histological sections (hematoxylin and eosin) of Diporeia (Amphipoda) collected from Lake Superior. Notice (A) the histologically normal ovaries (large arrows) of an amphipod not displaying a microsporidian infection in the muscle tissue (small arrow) and (B) melanized hemocytic encapsulation near the ovaries (small arrow) of an amphipod displaying a microsporidian infection (Dictyocoela diporeiae n. sp.) in the muscle tissue (large arrow). Scale bar = 25 µm.

By TEM, meronts were roundish cells surrounded by a plasma membrane. Meronts measured 1.49 ± 0.11 μm in diameter. No developing sporoblasts were observed. Mature spores measured 1.99 ± 0.09 μm long by × 1.19 ± 0.05 μm wide (n = 14). Eight coils of isofilar polar filaments were arranged in single ranks. Polar filaments measured 71.27 ± 3.33 nm in diameter. The spore wall was composed of a thick electron-lucent endospore overlaid with a thinner electron-dense exospore. The average thickness of the spore wall was 97.0 ± 8.3 nm. A lamellar polaroplast composed of ordered concentric membranes was found at the apical end of the spore surrounding the polar filament. A distinct posterior vacuole was observed at the distal end of the spore (Fig. 5).

thumbnail Figure 5

Dictyocoela diporeiae n. sp., transmission electron micrograph of the microsporidian infecting Diporeia sp. in Lake Superior. Notice (A) the meront (small arrow) and mature spore (large arrow), (B) spore wall composed of a thick electron-lucent endospore (large arrow) overlaid with a thinner electron-dense exospore (small arrow), and (C) lamellar polaroplast composed of ordered concentric membranes surrounding the polar filament (large arrow). Scale bars: A = 1000 nm, B–C = 500 nm.

Phylogenetic analysis

A BLAST search of the 16S rDNA sequence obtained from Diporeia showed that the closest matches (95% similarity) were for seven Dictyocoela spp. sequences (GenBank Accessions AJ438957, JQ673481, AJ438955, FN434091, AJ438956, FN434090, and AF397404) (Table 1). The resulting phylogeny showed that the sequence obtained from Diporeia was positioned deep within a large clade containing Dictyocoela spp. but formed a unique clade containing no sister taxa (Fig. 6). Posterior probabilities of branching points based on Bayesian inference indicated that the node support of the Lake Superior Diporeia microsporidian taxon was 90%. This result strongly suggested that the Lake Superior Diporeia microsporidian is a novel species within the genus Dictyocoela.

thumbnail Figure 6

Phylogenetic tree (50% majority-rule consensus) based on Bayesian Inference (MrBayes 3.1.2) of Dictyocoela spp. based on the small subunit ribosomal gene. Numbers at the nodes are Bayesian posterior probabilities. Spaguea lopii, Kabatana takedai, Nosema granulosis, Thelohania parastaci, Pleistophra mulleri, P. typicalius, Glugea anomala, and Loma acerinae were used as an outgroup for Dictyocoela spp. based on the results of Krebes et al. (2010).

Table 1

Listing of host record for Dictyocoela diporeiae n. sp. and similar Dictyocoela strains.

Phylogenetic analysis of nearly full-length small subunit rDNA sequences demonstrated that the Diporeia microsporidian fell deep within the large clade containing the genus Dictyocoela. However, electron microscopy revealed that the spores observed in Diporeia were not contained in sporophorus vesicles filled with tubules, a defining characteristic for the genus [26]. The genus Dictyocoela was proposed based on a group of eight novel sequences that clustered into a discrete clade basal to the major lineage of microsporidia infecting fishes. From these sequences, six species were designated, placing isolates within the same species where sequence dissimilarity was within 1% [26]. Additionally, the study of Wilkinson et al. [28], which investigated the diversity of Dictyocoela spp. across Europe and from Lake Baikal in Siberia, supported the designation of D. berillonum as a species separate from D. duebenum and D. muelleri and stated that host species distribution (Table 1) appears to influence structuring of Dictyocoela populations. In comparison with the Diporeia microsporidian, the results of the current study show that the most similar Dictyocoela strains had a 16S rDNA sequence dissimilarity of 5.1% or greater (Table 2), indicating that the observed microsporidian is novel. Based on its morphology, genetic sequence, host, and location in the host, we conclude that this Dictyocoela sp. is novel and we propose naming it Dictyocoela diporeiae n. sp.

Table 2

Pairwise genetic distances between Dictyocoela diporeiae n. sp. and similar Dictyocoela strains based on nearly full-length 16S small subunit rDNA sequences.

Discussion

All Dictyocoela spp. are vertically transmitted parasites that infect both ovarian tissue and adjacent muscle of their amphipod hosts [26]. Observation of microsporidia infecting the muscle surrounding the ovaries of Diporeia further suggests its placement in the genus Dictyocoela. The impact of this microsporidian on reproduction in Diporeia remains to be determined. However, given the extent of infection and involvement of the muscles surrounding ovaries, it is possible that the observed microsporidian can have severe impacts on Diporeia populations.

Moreover, it is likely that the observed destruction of muscle tissue caused by microsporidian infection impairs the normal movement, feeding, swimming, and overall functioning and fitness of Diporeia. The fact that tissue alteration and host inflammatory immune response were associated with these infections further highlights the negative impacts these infections have on Diporeia. Given the fact that Diporeia serves as a conduit of nutrients and energy to higher trophic levels and a coupling mechanism between pelagic and benthic zones of the Great Lakes [11], the observed infections could have considerable impacts on the normal functioning of the Great Lakes ecosystem. Diporeia was once the most dominant benthic macroinvertebrate throughout the Laurentian Great Lakes. Recently, however, Diporeia abundances have effectively been extirpated from many of its habitats in the Great Lakes, as reviewed in Nalepa et al. [21]. Currently, the cause of these declines is unknown. Additional morphological, phylogenetic, and pathological analyses are needed to better understand both the genetic diversity of microsporidia infecting Diporeia and the potential impact these infections have on Diporeia populations in the Great Lakes. This is the first report of a microsporidian infecting Diporeia in Lake Superior.

Acknowledgments

The authors are very grateful to the crew and staff of the R/V Lake Guardian for helping with sample collection. Financial support: the authors would like to thank the Great Lakes Fisheries Trust (Grant #: 3001637444) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency – Great Lakes National Protection Office (Grant #: GL00E36101) for their generous support of this study.

References

  1. Alderman D, Polglase JL, Holdich D, Lowery R. 1988. Pathogens, parasites and commensals. Freshwater crayfish. Biology, management and exploitation, in Freshwater crayfish: biology, management and exploitation. Holdich DM, Lowery RS, Editors. Croom Helm (Chapman and Hall): London. p. 167–212. [Google Scholar]
  2. Baker MD, Vossbrinck CR, Didier ES, Maddox JV, Shadduck JA. 1995. Small subunit ribosomal DNA phylogeny of various microsporidia with emphasis on AIDS related forms. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 42(5), 564–570. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  3. Barbiero RP, Schmude K, Lesht BM, Riseng CM, Warren GJ, Tuchman ML. 2011. Trends in Diporeia populations across the Laurentian Great Lakes, 1997–2009. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 37(1), 9–17. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  4. Bousfield E. 1989. Revised morphological relationships within the amphipod genera Pontoporeia and Gammaracanthus and the “glacial relict” significance of their postglacial distributions. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 46(10), 1714–1725. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  5. Darriba D, Taboada GL, Doallo R, Posada D. 2012. jModelTest 2: more models, new heuristics and parallel computing. Nature Methods, 9(8), 772. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  6. Dermott R, Kerec D. 1997. Changes to the deepwater benthos of eastern Lake Erie since the invasion of Dreissena: 1979–1993. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 54(4), 922–930. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  7. Dunn A, Hatcher M, Terry R, Tofts C. 1995. Evolutionary ecology of vertically transmitted parasites: transovarial transmission of a microsporidian sex ratio distorter in Gammarus duebeni. Parasitology, 111(S1), S91–S109. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  8. Dunn AM, Terry RS, Smith JE. 2001. Transovarial transmission in the microsporidia. Advances in Parasitology, 48, 57–100. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  9. Edgerton BF, Evans LH, Stephens FJ, Overstreet RM. 2002. Synopsis of freshwater crayfish diseases and commensal organisms. Aquaculture, 206(1), 57–135. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  10. Fielding N, et al. 2005. Ecological impacts of the microsporidian parasite Pleistophora mulleri on its freshwater amphipod host Gammarus duebeni celticus. Parasitology, 131(03), 331–336. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  11. Fitzgerald SA, Gardner WS. 1993. An algal carbon budget for pelagic-benthic coupling in Lake Michigan. Limnology and Oceanography, 38(3), 547–560. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  12. Hatcher MJ, Taneyhill DE, Dunn AM, Tofts C. 1999. Population dynamics under parasitic sex ratio distortion. Theoretical Population Biology, 56(1), 11–28. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  13. Hogg J, Ironside J, Sharpe R, Hatcher M, Smith J, Dunn A. 2002. Infection of Gammarus duebeni populations by two vertically transmitted microsporidia; parasite detection and discrimination by PCR-RFLP. Parasitology, 125(01), 59–63. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  14. Huelsenbeck JP, Ronquist F. 2001. MRBAYES: Bayesian inference of phylogenetic trees. Bioinformatics, 17(8), 754–755. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  15. Kelly JF. 1979. Tissue specificities of Thelohania duorara, Agmasoma penaei, and Pleistophora sp., microsporidian parasites of pink shrimp, Penaeus duorarum. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 33(3), 331–339. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  16. Krebes L, Blank M, Frankowski J, Bastrop R. 2010. Molecular characterisation of the Microsporidia of the amphipod Gammarus duebeni across its natural range revealed hidden diversity, wide-ranging prevalence and potential for co-evolution. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 10(7), 1027–1038. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  17. Langdon J. 1991. Microsporidiosis due to a pleistophorid in marron, Cherax tenuimanus (Smith), (Decapoda: Parastacidae). Journal of Fish Diseases, 14(1), 33–44. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  18. Lozano SJ, Scharold JV, Nalepa TF. 2001. Recent declines in benthic macroinvertebrate densities in Lake Ontario. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 58(3), 518–529. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  19. Luna LG. 1968. Manual of histologic staining methods of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, vol. 121, McGraw-Hill: New York. [Google Scholar]
  20. Nalepa TF, Faisal M. Submitted. Final Report: Mechanistic approach to identify the role of pathogens in causing Diporeia spp. decline in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Great Lakes Fisheries Trust Grant No. 3001637444. [Google Scholar]
  21. Nalepa TF, Fanslow DL, Pothoven SA, Foley AJ III, Lang GA. 2007. Long-term trends in benthic macroinvertebrate populations in Lake Huron over the past four decades. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 33(2), 421–436. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  22. Nalepa TF, Hartson DJ, Fanslow DL, Lang GA, Lozano SJ. 1998. Declines in benthic macroinvertebrate populations in southern Lake Michigan, 1980–1993. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 55(11), 2402–2413. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  23. Rodriguez F, Oliver J, Marin A, Medina JR. 1990. The general stochastic model of nucleotide substitution. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 142(4), 485–501. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  24. Ryan JA, Kohler SL. 2010. Virulence is context-dependent in a vertically transmitted aquatic host-microparasite system. International Journal for Parasitology, 40(14), 1665–1673. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  25. Tamura K, Peterson D, Peterson N, Stecher G, Nei M, Kumar S. 2011. MEGA5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 28(10), 2731–2739. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  26. Terry RS, Smith JE, Sharpe RG, Rigaud T, Littlewood DTJ, Ironside JE, Rollinson D, Bouchon D, MacNeil C, Dick JTA, Dunn AM. 2004. Widespread vertical transmission and associated host sex-ratio distortion within the eukaryotic phylum Microspora. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 271(1550), 1783–1789. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  27. Vossbrinck CR, Woese CR. 1986. Eukaryotic ribosomes that lack a 5.8S RNA. Nature, 320, 287–288. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  28. Wilkinson TJ, Rock J, Whiteley NM, Ovcharenko MO, Ironside JE. 2011. Genetic diversity of the feminising microsporidian parasite Dictyocoela: New insights into host-specificity, sex and phylogeography. International Journal for Parasitology, 41(9), 959–966. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  29. Wittner M, Weiss LM. 1999. The Microsporidia and Microsporidiosis. ASM Press: Washington. [Google Scholar]

Cite this article as: Winters AD & Faisal M: Molecular and ultrastructural characterization of Dictyocoela diporeiae n. sp. (Microsporidia), a parasite of Diporeia spp. (Amphipoda, Gammaridea). Parasite, 2014, 21, 26.

All Tables

Table 1

Listing of host record for Dictyocoela diporeiae n. sp. and similar Dictyocoela strains.

Table 2

Pairwise genetic distances between Dictyocoela diporeiae n. sp. and similar Dictyocoela strains based on nearly full-length 16S small subunit rDNA sequences.

All Figures

thumbnail Figure 1

Sampling sites in Lake Superior where Diporeia sp. (Amphipoda, Gammaridae) were collected.

In the text
thumbnail Figure 2

Histological sections (hematoxylin and eosin) of Dictyocoela diporeiae n. sp. developmental stages in an infected Diporeia sp. collected from Lake Superior. Notice the individual spores (small arrow) replacing skeletal muscle and melanized hemocytic infiltration in adjacent muscle tissue (large arrows). Scale bar = 25 µm.

In the text
thumbnail Figure 3

Histological sections (hematoxylin and eosin) of a Diporeia sp. sample collected from Lake Superior. Notice the microsporidians (Dictyocoela diporeiae n. sp.) filling and replacing muscle tissues (small arrows) surrounding the ovaries (large arrows). Scale bar = 100 µm.

In the text
thumbnail Figure 4

Histological sections (hematoxylin and eosin) of Diporeia (Amphipoda) collected from Lake Superior. Notice (A) the histologically normal ovaries (large arrows) of an amphipod not displaying a microsporidian infection in the muscle tissue (small arrow) and (B) melanized hemocytic encapsulation near the ovaries (small arrow) of an amphipod displaying a microsporidian infection (Dictyocoela diporeiae n. sp.) in the muscle tissue (large arrow). Scale bar = 25 µm.

In the text
thumbnail Figure 5

Dictyocoela diporeiae n. sp., transmission electron micrograph of the microsporidian infecting Diporeia sp. in Lake Superior. Notice (A) the meront (small arrow) and mature spore (large arrow), (B) spore wall composed of a thick electron-lucent endospore (large arrow) overlaid with a thinner electron-dense exospore (small arrow), and (C) lamellar polaroplast composed of ordered concentric membranes surrounding the polar filament (large arrow). Scale bars: A = 1000 nm, B–C = 500 nm.

In the text
thumbnail Figure 6

Phylogenetic tree (50% majority-rule consensus) based on Bayesian Inference (MrBayes 3.1.2) of Dictyocoela spp. based on the small subunit ribosomal gene. Numbers at the nodes are Bayesian posterior probabilities. Spaguea lopii, Kabatana takedai, Nosema granulosis, Thelohania parastaci, Pleistophra mulleri, P. typicalius, Glugea anomala, and Loma acerinae were used as an outgroup for Dictyocoela spp. based on the results of Krebes et al. (2010).

In the text

Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.

Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.

Initial download of the metrics may take a while.