Open Access

Table I.

Molecular factors or mechanisms linking parasite-related inflammation with cell transformation or cancer.

Parasite Pathology in natural (N) or experimental (E) hosts Activated host transcription factors Inflammatory cytokines Procarcinogens or mediators of oxidative response Change in coding or expression of proteins involved in regulating cell cycle or apoptosis DNA damage or cytoskeleton alteration
Cryptosporidium parvum Digestive carcinoma (E) NF-κB (5) IL-6 IL-8 (13, 17) c-Myc, Bcl2 (15) Host actin remodeling (23)
IFN-γ (30) Cyclin D1 (6)
PGE2 (14)
TNF-α (1)
Theileria spp. Lympho-proliferation (N, E) NF-κB (10) GM-CSF (2) c-Myc (7) Cytoskeleton modification (3, 26, 27)
JNK (8) c-Jun (15)
AP-1 (16) NF-κB (10, 26)
STAT 3 (7)
Clonorchis sinensis Cholangiocarcinoma (N, E) E2F1 (12) Cyclin B (12) DNA oxidation (31)
Opisthorchis viverrini Cholangiocarcinoma (N, E) NF-κB (22) IL-6, IL-8 (20, 29) IL-12 (11) NO (21, 28) DNA oxidation (20, 29)
Schistosoma haematobium Bladder carcinoma (N, E) TNF-α (24) Aflatoxins (25) ROS, NO (19, 25) N-nitroso compounds (18) p53 (17) Bcl2 (4) COX-2 (9) DNA alkylation (31)

Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.

Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.

Initial download of the metrics may take a while.