Open Access

Table 1

Characteristics of the study areas.

Environmental characteristics
Altitude range at the sites or used by host species Wild ungulates inhabiting the area Study period References
Study area Coordinates Climate Vegetation
Bauges (French Alps) 45.40°N et 6.13°E Mountain Coniferous and beech up to 1,500 m; Cliffs and open grasslands between 1,700 and 2,200 m Chamois: 1,260–2,081 m Chamois, Mediterranean mouflon, roe deer, red deer and wild boar May–September in 2012–2016 [28]
Mediterranean mouflon: 897–1,866 m*
Bazès (French Pyrenees) 43.00°N, 0.23°W Mountain Covered by alpine grass (Festuca eskia), rocks and forest (beech Fagus sylvatica and Abies sp.) 1,000–1,800 m Pyrenean chamois, roe deer, red deer and wild boar Spring and late summer–early autumn 2011–2012 [56]
Caroux- Espinouse (Massif-Central) 43.63°N, 2.97°E Mediterranean, oceanic and mountain influences Irregular mosaic of beech, chestnut, evergreen oak with open areas dominated by moorlands of heather and broom heathlands Mediterranean mouflon: 591–1,093 m* Mediterranean mouflon, roe deer and wild boar May–mid-July in 2010, 2012 and 2014 [28]
Cinto (Corsica) 42.38°N et 8.90°E Mediterranean and mountain influences Mediterranean forests, woodlands and scrub (maquis shrublands); pine forests in the lower levels (supramediterranean and mountainous); in the coolest areas, beech type formations (Fagus sylvatica) Corsican mouflon: 905–2,017 m* Corsican mouflon and Corsican red deer January–March in 2011–2015 [83]

Altitude range (2.5%–97.5% quantiles) used by host species was determined based on GPS locations from 23 to 299 individuals per species fitted with GPS collars.

Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.

Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.

Initial download of the metrics may take a while.