Volume 28, 2021
|Number of page(s)||6|
|Published online||27 May 2021|
Limitations of PCR detection of filarial DNA in human stools from subjects non-infected with soil-transmitted helminths
Limites de la détection par PCR d’ADN de filaires dans les selles humaines de sujets non-infectés par les géohelminthes
Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), UMI 233-INSERM U1175-University of Montpellier, 34394 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
2 Centre for Research on Filariasis and Other Tropical Diseases (CRFilMT), PO Box 5797 Yaoundé, Cameroon
3 Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences (FMBS), PO Box 1364 Yaoundé, Cameroon
4 Department of Parasitology–Mycology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) of Montpellier, University of Montpellier, 34295 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
* Corresponding author: email@example.com
Accepted: 11 May 2021
The standard techniques for diagnosis of human filariasis are the microscopic examination of blood smears or skin biopsies, which are relatively invasive and poorly sensitive at low levels of infection. Recently, filarial DNA has been detected in fecal samples from non-human primates in Central Africa. The aim of this study was to demonstrate proof-of-concept of a non-invasive molecular diagnosis technique for human filariasis by targeting fragments of 12S rDNA, Cox1, ITS1 and LL20-15kDa ladder antigen-gene by conventional PCR in DNA extracted from stool samples of 52 people infected with Mansonella perstans and/or Loa loa. Of these, 10 patients were infected with soil-transmitted helminths (Trichuris trichiura and/or Ascaris lumbricoides), and none were positive for Necator americanus. Interestingly, no filarial gene fragments were detected in the stools of any of the 52 patients. Future studies should evaluate whether a co-infection with soil-transmitted helminths causing gastrointestinal bleeding and likely allowing (micro)filaria exit into the digestive tract, may facilitate the molecular detection of filarial DNA fragments in stool samples.
Les techniques standards de diagnostic des filarioses humaines (examen microscopique de gouttes épaisses ou de biopsies cutanées) sont relativement invasives et peu sensibles à de faibles niveaux d’infection. De l’ADN de filaires a été récemment détecté dans des échantillons de fèces de primates non-humains en Afrique centrale. L’objectif de cette étude était de démontrer la preuve de concept d’un diagnostic moléculaire non invasif des filarioses chez l’homme en ciblant des fragments d’ADNr 12S, Cox1, ITS1 et l’antigène LL20-15kDa par PCR classique. L’ADN a été extrait d’échantillons de selles de 52 personnes infectées par Mansonella perstans et/ou Loa loa. Parmi ces patients, dix étaient infectés par des géohelminthes (Trichuris trichiura et/ou Ascaris lumbricoides) et aucun n’était positif pour Necator americanus. De manière intéressante, aucun fragment de gène de filaires n’a été détecté dans les selles des 52 patients. Des études futures devraient être menées pour évaluer si une coinfection avec des géohelminthes (provoquant des hémorragies gastro-intestinales et permettant probablement l’effraction de (micro)filaires dans le tube digestif) facilite la détection moléculaire de fragments d’ADN de filaires dans les selles.
Key words: Mansonella perstans / Loa loa / Stool sample / PCR / Cameroon
© M.P.M. Doret et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2021
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Filariases are vector-borne infections caused by nematode parasites. Adults of the main species infecting humans live in subcutaneous or deep nodules (Onchocerca volvulus), in fascia layers (Loa loa), in the lymphatic circulation (lymphatic filariae), or in body cavities (Mansonella perstans, M. ozzardi). Female worms produce embryos called microfilariae (mf) that migrate into the dermis (O. volvulus) or into the bloodstream (L. loa, lymphatic filariae, M. perstans). Diagnosis relies on the detection of mf in skin biopsies for onchocerciasis or in a calibrated thick blood smear (CTBS) for the other filariases. These techniques are relatively invasive, and their sensitivity decreases with lower infection intensity. Methods using a molecular approach, like polymerase chain reaction (PCR)  and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) [10, 12], are more specific and sensitive. Recently, Mansonella sp. DNA was detected in fecal samples from non-human primates (NHP) . This study aimed to demonstrate the proof-of-concept of non-invasive diagnosis of human filariasis in stool samples using a conventional PCR method, and to determine whether filarial DNA detection is associated with co-infections with soil-transmitted helminths (STH) causing blood loss while feeding on the host intestinal mucosa.
The study, conducted in Cameroon, was approved by the Centre Regional Ethics Committee for Human Health Research (No. 00837/CRERSCH/2019). All volunteers were informed one week before the beginning of the study and signed a consent form prior to enrollment.
The subjects included in this study (aged 13–88 years) participated in a project conducted in 2015 in 92 villages of the Okola Health District (Centre Region) to evaluate the efficacy of a rapid diagnostic tool called LoaScope to identify subjects with high L. loa microfilarial densities (MFD) . During this “Test-and-not-Treat” (TaNT) project, individuals with ≥20,000 L. loa mf/mL of blood, who were at risk of developing a serious reaction after ivermectin treatment, did not receive the drug. In 2018, 52 of these excluded individuals with high L. loa and/or M. perstans MFD participated in the present study. During the information phase of the study, patients were provided with a 60 mL vial for stool collection and were instructed to hand it with fresh stool (produced the morning of the visit) to the field team the day of the capillary blood collection. Capillary blood samples were collected between 10 am and 4 pm (time of highest L. loa MFD in the peripheral circulation). Loa loa and M. perstans MFD were measured by CTBS. Upon receipt of the stool sample, 2 mL (about 1 g of stool) were put in a 15 mL tube and 2 mL of RNAlater® (Ambion, Austin, TX, USA) were added. Both tubes were transferred to the CRFilMT laboratory in Yaoundé in a cooler with icepacks. The samples in RNAlater® were stored at −20 °C for further molecular analyses. For the intestinal parasite eggs counts, Kato-Katz analyses were performed the day after collection on a small amount of stool (41.7 mg template) taken directly from the 60 mL tube, after homogenization. The remaining stool material was resuspended in formalin for the additional detection of gastrointestinal parasites using the Mini-FLOTAC technique.
Fecal DNA was extracted using a QIAamp Fast Stool DNA Mini kit (Qiagen, Valencia, CA, USA), following the manufacturer’s instructions. Briefly, 1.5 mL of fecal-RNAlater® mixture was re-suspended in stool lysis buffer and clarified by centrifugation. The supernatants were treated with an InhibitEx buffer, subjected to proteinase K digestion, and passed through a DNA binding column. Bound DNA was eluted in 100 μL elution buffer. To investigate the presence of gastro-intestinal parasites, a modified DNA extraction protocol was adopted, after the clarification. This step consisted of additional homogenization in tubes containing silica beads of different size (lysis matrix E) in a FastPrep-24 mill (MP Biomedical, Eschwege, Germany) and overnight incubation at 56 °C to better expose the parasite DNA in eggs. Dried blood spots (DBS) from 20 additional pharmacologically untreated individuals with high MFD (10 infected with L. loa only (110,360–269,520 mf/mL) and 10 with M. perstans only (960–4020 mf/mL)) enrolled in the project mentioned above were selected as positive controls, and DNA extraction was performed using a NucliSENS® kit (bioMérieux, France) . Data on mf/mL from the 20 individuals are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
To assess the efficacy of the DNA extraction, we ran a PCR targeting a 460–500-bp mitochondrial DNA fragment spanning the human 12S rDNA region. Subsequently, to detect the presence of filariae, we ran nested PCRs targeting fragments of two mitochondrial genes (12S rDNA and Cox1), one-step PCRs targeting fragments of the Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS1), and the LL20 15KDa ladder antigen gene (see Table 1). PCRs were run for DNA extracted from DBS from 20 individuals, for DNA extracted from stools from 52 additional individuals alone, and for DNA extracted from stools from the latter individuals with an addition of 0.1 μL of M. perstans DNA and 0.05 μL of L. loa DNA extracted from the DBS positive samples to check for the presence of PCR inhibitors. Negative controls were included to check for contaminations. To validate this protocol in fecal samples, PCRs targeting a fragment of the ITS1 (using primers Mp-Sen-F and Mp-Sen-R) were also run on six DNA samples extracted from chimpanzees positive for Mansonella sp. (for 12S rDNA or Cox1) . To confirm the results of the stool microscopic examinations, nested or semi-nested PCRs targeting ITS1 or ITS2 fragments of the STH genomes, respectively, were also run (primers, PCR conditions and references listed in Table 1). The sequences were assembled and corrected manually with SeqMan DNAstar (Laser-Gene, DNASTAR, Inc., Madison, WI, USA), then compared to the reference sequences available in GenBank, using the Nucleotide Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLASTn).
Primers list, PCR conditions, and references.
Six DNA samples extracted from chimpanzee feces were positive for Mansonella sp., using primers MP-Sen targeting the ITS1, confirming previous results . Although the detection of human DNA is not a guarantee that pathogen DNA has not been degraded, it was successfully amplified in all 52 stool samples. An RT-qPCR inhibition screening test was conducted on a subset of samples by targeting the human albumin gene. No PCR method was able to amplify M. perstans and L. loa target fragments from the DNA extracted. However, samples in which a dilution of DNA extracted from DBS was added were all positive. The same DNA extraction methods were applied for the chimpanzee fecal samples for which we were able to detect the presence of filariae.
All samples were analyzed for the presence of Necator americanus, Trichuris trichiura, and Ascaris lumbricoides by the Kato-Katz technique, Mini-FLOTAC and conventional PCR (Table 2). Five participants were infected with T. trichiura, four with A. lumbricoides, one with both species, but none with N. americanus. Thus, altogether, the number of patients infected with STH was low. These findings corroborate those obtained during a National survey conducted in 2010 , which reported low prevalence of infection in school children living in the Centre Region (10.5, 18.6 and 2.7% for A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura and hookworms, respectively), and those obtained in 2020 in adults living in villages included in the TaNT project mentioned above (prevalence of 1.4% for A. lumbricoides and 2.2% for T. trichiura) (Nana-Djeunga, unpublished results). This situation probably results from the fact that (a) the health areas neighboring the TaNT villages have been treated with ivermectin for about two decades to fight onchocerciasis; (b) most of the people living in the TaNT villages benefitted from annual treatment with ivermectin between 2015 and 2018 (subjects excluded from this treatment represent less than 3% of those tested with the LoaScope); and (c) school-aged children of the whole health district have received regular mebendazole treatment since 2007. Of note, it has been shown recently that, in areas where ivermectin is administered as a mass treatment, the impact is greater on STH transmission compared to where only mebendazole has been administered . Given the absence of hookworm infection, the low proportion of participants infected with T. trichiura or A. lumbricoides, and the low egg counts recorded (Table 2), STH-related blood loss in the intestine was probably minimal. This may explain the absence of DNA from blood-dwelling mf in the samples examined. Importantly, among the six chimpanzee stool samples that we found to be positive for Mansonella sp., five were infected with Oesophagostomum sp. and/or Necator sp. .
CTBS results for L. loa and M. perstans and Kato-Katz, Mini-FLOTAC and PCR results for soil-transmitted helminths.
We obtained PCR-negative results for the detection of filarial DNA in human feces from infected patients. RT-qPCR may display higher sensitivity compared to conventional PCR, and this may be the limitation of this study. However, filarial DNA detection appears to work better in NHPs co-infected with intestinal parasites. If co-infection with intestinal parasites is necessary, then the present study clearly suffered from a lack of statistical power. We had assumed that a significant proportion of subjects would be infected with STH, but this was not the case. Further studies should target individuals co-infected with STH (especially hookworms) and filariae to test our hypothesis. It should be noted that gastrointestinal bleeding may also be caused by other diseases such as colon cancer, hemorrhoids or ulcerations, and therefore a fecal occult blood test could complement the search for STH. In addition, exploring the presence in fecal samples of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) fragments from various pathogens is an approach worth investigating in the future . The development of a reliable, non-invasive test combining the detection of different parasites in one sample could be useful when samples are collected in remote regions with difficult access to points of care [13, 16].
Datasets and questionnaires are available from the corresponding author under reasonable request.
Study design: HCND, SDSP, CBC, SL. Data collection and microscopic analyses: HCND, NNT. PCR experiments: MPMD, SL. Data analysis: MPMD, HCND, SL. Writing: MPMD, SL with input from all authors. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The authors are grateful to the patients from the Okola Health District enrolled in this study, to Floribert Fossuo-Thotchum, Arnauld Efon-Ekangouo, Aubin Yves Balog and Jean Bopda for technical assistance at CRFilMT in Yaoundé, to Colette Gaillard, Thomas Lemarcis, Christelle Butel and Laetitia Serrano for technical assistance at IRD. We thank Patrick Bastien for scientific support. This work was supported by a MsC-Biomarkers & Therapy grant 2018–2019 from the Montpellier University of Excellence (MUSE).
- Bassene H, Sambou M, Fenollar F, Clarke S, Djiba S, Mourembou G, Alioune Badara LY, Raoult D, Mediannikov O. 2015. High prevalence of Mansonella perstans filariasis in rural Senegal. American Journal of Tropical Medecine & Hygiene, 93(3), 601–606. [Google Scholar]
- Casiraghi M, Anderson TJ, Bandi C, Bazzocchi C, Genchi C. 2001. A phylogenetic analysis of filarial nematodes: comparison with the phylogeny of Wolbachia endosymbionts. Parasitology, 122 Pt 1, 93–103. [Google Scholar]
- Das K, Chowdhury P, Ganguly S. 2015. Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS1) based sequence typing reveals phylogenetically distinct Ascaris population. Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal, 13, 478–483. [Google Scholar]
- Djune-Yemeli L, Nana-Djeunga HC, Lenou-Nanga CG, Donfo-Azafack C, Domche A, Fossuo-Thotchum F, Niamsi-Emalio Y, Ntoumi F, Kamgno J. 2020. Serious limitations of the current strategy to control soil-transmitted helminths and added value of ivermectin/albendazole mass administration: a population-based observational study in Cameroon. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 14(11), e0008794. [Google Scholar]
- Fischer P, Boakye D, Hamburger J. 2003. Polymerase chain reaction-based detection of lymphatic filariasis. Medical Microbiology and Immunology, 192(1), 3–7. [Google Scholar]
- Gaillard CM, Pion SD, Hamou H, Sirima C, Bizet C, Lemarcis T, Rodrigues J, Esteban A, Peeters M, Mpoudi Ngole E, Mombo I, Liegeois F, Martin C, Boussinesq M, Locatelli S. 2020. Detection of DNA of filariae closely related to Mansonella perstans in faecal samples from wild non-human primates from Cameroon and Gabon. Parasites & Vectors, 13(1), 313. [Google Scholar]
- Ghai RR, Chapman CA, Omeja PA, Davies TJ, Goldberg TL. 2014. Nodule worm infection in humans and wild primates in Uganda: cryptic species in a newly identified region of human transmission. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 8(1), e2641. [Google Scholar]
- Ghai RR, Simons ND, Chapman CA, Omeja PA, Davies TJ, Ting N, Goldberg TL. 2014. Hidden population structure and cross-species transmission of whipworms (Trichuris sp.) in humans and non-human primates in Uganda. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 8(10), e3256. [Google Scholar]
- Kamgno J, Pion SD, Chesnais CB, Bakalar MH, D’Ambrosio MV, Mackenzie CD, Nana-Djeunga HC, Gounoue-Kamkumo R, Njitchouang GR, Nwane P, Tchatchueng-Mbouga JB, Wanji S, Stolk WA, Fletcher DA, Klion AD, Nutman TB, Boussinesq M. 2017. A test-and-not-treat strategy for onchocerciasis in Loa loa-endemic areas. New England Journal of Medicine, 377(21), 2044–2052. [Google Scholar]
- Lagatie O, Merino M, Batsa Debrah L, Debrah AY, Stuyver LJ. 2016. An isothermal DNA amplification method for detection of Onchocerca volvulus infection in skin biopsies. Parasites & Vectors, 9(1), 624. [Google Scholar]
- Monleau M, Aghokeng AF, Eymard-Duvernay S, Dagnra A, Kania D, Ngo-Giang-Huong N, Toure-Kane C, Truong LX, Chaix ML, Delaporte E, Ayouba A, Peeters M, Group AS. 2014. Field evaluation of dried blood spots for routine HIV-1 viral load and drug resistance monitoring in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in Africa and Asia. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 52(2), 578–586. [Google Scholar]
- Poole CB, Tanner NA, Zhang Y, Evans TC Jr, Carlow CK. 2012. Diagnosis of brugian filariasis by loop-mediated isothermal amplification. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 6(12), e1948. [Google Scholar]
- Priest JW, Jenks MH, Moss DM, Mao B, Buth S, Wannemuehler K, Soeung SC, Lucchi NW, Udhayakumar V, Gregory CJ, Huy R, Muth S, Lammie PJ. 2016. Integration of multiplex bead assays for parasitic diseases into a national, population-based serosurvey of women 15–39 years of age in Cambodia. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 10(5), e0004699. [Google Scholar]
- Tchuem Tchuente LA, Kamwa Ngassam RI, Sumo L, Ngassam P, Dongmo Noumedem C, Nzu DD, Dankoni E, Kenfack CM, Gipwe NF, Akame J, Tarini A, Zhang Y, Angwafo FF 3rd. 2012. Mapping of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in the regions of centre, East and West Cameroon. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 6(3), e1553. [Google Scholar]
- Toure FS, Bain O, Nerrienet E, Millet P, Wahl G, Toure Y, Doumbo O, Nicolas L, Georges AJ, McReynolds LA, Egwang TG. 1997. Detection of Loa loa-specific DNA in blood from occult-infected individuals. Experimental Parasitology, 86(3), 163–170. [Google Scholar]
- Utzinger J, Becker SL, Knopp S, Blum J, Neumayr AL, Keiser J, Hatz CF. 2012. Neglected tropical diseases: diagnosis, clinical management, treatment and control. Swiss Medical Weekly, 142, w13727. [Google Scholar]
- van der Kuyl AC, Kuiken CL, Dekker JT, Goudsmit J. 1995. Phylogeny of African monkeys based upon mitochondrial 12S rRNA sequences. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 40(2), 173–180. [Google Scholar]
- Weerakoon KG, McManus DP. 2016. Cell-free DNA as a diagnostic tool for human parasitic infections. Trends in Parasitology, 32(5), 378–391. [Google Scholar]
Cite this article as: Doret MPM, Nana-Djeunga HC, Nzune-Toche N, Pion SDS, Chesnais CB, Boussinesq M, Kamgno J, Varlet-Marie E & Locatelli S. 2021. Limitations of PCR detection of filarial DNA in human stools from subjects non-infected with soil-transmitted helminths. Parasite 28, 47.
Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.
Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.
Initial download of the metrics may take a while.