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Table 3

Results of univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis of Theileria spp. and Anaplasma ovis PCR-positive infections in sheep and goats in Northern Pakistan.

Risk factors Theileria spp.
Anaplasma ovis
Prevalence
Univariable
Multivariable
Prevalence
Univariable
Multivariable
Positive (%) CI 95% OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value Positive (%) CI 95% OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value
Host
 Goat 71 (8.8) 6.83–10.76 0.52 (0.37–0.73) 0.001 0.42 (0.27–0.65) 0.001 63 (7.8) 6.01–9.74 0.48 (0.34–0.68) 0.001 0.83 (0.22–3.86) 0.001
 Sheep 116 (14.5) 12.06–16.33 111 (13.8)
Sex
 Male 59 (7.3) 5.55–9.18 0.8 (0.56–1.14) 0.242 0.54 (0.33–0.85) 0.001 56 (7.0) 5.23–8.76 0.84 (0.58–1.20) 0.35 0.61 (0.23–2.63) 0.001
 Female 128 (16.0) 13.45–18.54 118 (14.7) 12.29–17.20
Age
  < 6 months 114 (14.2) 11.71–16.53 3.7 (2.71–5.36) 0.001 3.77 (2.44–5.87) 0.001 100 (12.5) 10.20–14.79 3.24 (2.30–4.60) 0.001 1.33 (0.22–5.88) 0.001
  ≥ 6 months 73 (9.1) 7.24–11.25 74 (9.2) 7.24–11.25
Tick infestation
 Present 174 (21.7) 18.89–24.61 3.43 (0.29–11.75) 0.001 20.9 (11.01–42.63) 0.001 162 (20.2) 17.46–23.03 3.46 (0.31–11.11) 0.001 3.04 (0.34–8.85) 0.001
 Absent 14 (1.7) 0.84–2.65 12 (1.5) 0.65–2.35
Grazing system
 Full grazing 125 (15.6) 13.11–18.14 116 (14.5) 12.06–16.93
 Semi 40 (5) 3.48–6.51 0.32 (0.26–0.41) 0.001 0.57 (0.42–0.75) 0.001 41 (5.1) 3.57–6.62 0.34 (0.26–0.42) 0.001 0.56 (0.14–3.88) 0.001
 Zero 21 (2.6) 1.51–3.73 17 (2.1) 1.10–3.09
Acaricides
 Regular 13 (1.6) 0.73–2.46 12 (1.5) 1.41–3.58
 Irregular 40 (5.0) 3.48–6.51 3.30 (2.58–4.29) 0.001 1.25 (0.88–1.01) 0.18 36 (4.5) 3.06–5.93 3.30 (2.57–4.33) 0.001 0.22 (0.17–1.29) 0.19
 No use 134 (16.7) 14.16–19.33 126 (15.7) 13.17–18.22

OR = Odds ratio, CI = Confidence interval. Semi = semi-grazing system.

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