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Intracytoplasmic cytokine-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell frequency in the treated and infected animals. BALB/c mice were infected with Leishmania infantum promastigotes and received saline or were treated with empty micelle (B/Mic), miltefosine, ICHQ, or ICHQ/Mic. The animals were euthanized 15 days after treatment, when their splenocytes were collected and non-stimulated or in vitro stimulated with SLA (50 μg/mL) for 48 h at 37 °C in 5% CO2. Results were expressed as cytokine indexes (stimulated culture/control culture ratio) to obtain the IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-10-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cell frequency. Bars indicate the mean ± standard deviation of the groups. (*) and (**) indicate statistically significant differences in relation to the saline and B/Mic groups, respectively (p < 0.05).

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