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Table 1.

Plant by-products for screening for in vitro activity against C. parvum . List of raw materials and extracts obtained from phytogenic by-products in the course of the EU project SAFEWASTES: (A) extracts and pure compounds related to olives, and (B) monensin. Extracts were abbreviated using the first letters of the genus and the specific epitheton, together with the type of extract produced: W = water extract, E = ethanol extract (70% (v/v)), H = heptane extract. Monensin was used as a positive control. Table according to Stockhammer et al. [40], modified.

Raw material Scientific name Product after industrial production process Origin Extracts and yields from extraction [g/kg raw material]
Horse chestnut wastewater Aesculus hippocastanum L. Dried wastewater from seeds after methanol-ethanol extraction Italy AHW [n.a.a]
Hawthorn fruits Crataegus monogyna Jaquin emend. Lindman; Crataegus laevigata (Poiret) De Candolle Dried fruits after ethanol extraction Austria CFW [62.6], CFE [52.3]
Pumpkin Cucurbita pepo L. var. Styriaca Dried, cut and powdered fruits and peels Austria CPW [400.0], CPE [275.0], CPH [8.0]
Artichoke Cynara scolymus L. cv. Camus Dried aerial parts after chaffing, steaming and pressing Germany CSW [102.7], CSE [63.7]
Carrot pomace Daucus carota L. cv. Carotan Dried roots after blanching and pressing Germany DCW [220.6], DCE [272.0]
Purple coneflower Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench Dried aerial parts after blanching, milling and pressing Europe EPW [63.0], EPE [71.6], EPH [3.6]
Sunflower seeds Helianthus annuus L. Dried seeds after heating and pressing Argentina HAW [153.0], HAE [18.5]
Larch sawdust Larix decidua Mill., syn. Larix europaea DC Dried and powdered sawdust Austria LDW [34.0], LDE [20.0], LDH [7.0]
Linseed pomace Linum usitatissimum L. Dried seeds after heating and pressing Argentina LUW [190.3], LUE [76.7]
Tomato peels Solanum lycopersicum L. Dried paste after methanol extraction Italy LEW [408.0], LEE [340.0]
Mango peels Mangifera indica L. cv. Kaew Dried and crushed peels Thailand MIW [364.1], MIE [413.5]
Olive pomace Olea europaea L. Dried fruit pomace after oil pressing and phenol recovery by methanol-ethanol extraction Italy OEW [24.0], OEE [20.0]
Willow bark Salix alba L. Dried bark after ethanol extraction Germany SAW [21.6], SAE [24.5], SAH [3.1]
Sinupret Primula veris L., Primula elatior L. Hill, Sambucus nigra L., Verbena officinalis L., Gentiana lutea L., Rumex acetosa L. Dried residues after ethanol extraction of primrose, elder and verbena blossoms, gentian leaves and garden sorrel roots Germany SIW [14.0] SIE [17.2], SIH [11.0]
Saw palmetto fruits Serenoa repens (Bartram) Small, syn. Sabal serrulata (Michaux) Nutall ex Schultes Dried fruits after extraction with ethanol and methanol (SRH) or after supercritical CO2 extraction USA SRH [4], SRCW [28.9], SRCE [45.9], SRCH [5.4]
Thyme leaves Thymus vulgaris L. Dried leaves after ethanol extraction Germany TVW [60.2], TVE [70.5], TVH [7.0]
Blueberry peels Vaccinium myrtillus L. Dried peels after extraction with aqueous alcohols (methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol) and toluene Italy VMW [39.5], VME [32.4]
Grape seed extract
Vitis vinifera L.
Dry extract obtained by acetone/water and ethyl acetate extraction
VVW [n.a.a]

Purity (%)
Order no.

Hydroxytyrosol from olive leaves 10 Eurochem Feinchemie GmbH, Gröbenzell, Germany L06C001
Tyrosol 98 Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA 188255
trans-Coniferyl alcohol ≥97 Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA 27740
Oleuropein extract NATURA from olive leaves 8.2 Sinoplasan AG, Esslingen, Germany n.a.a
Monensin sodium 90–95 Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA M5273

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