Volume 20, 2013
|Number of page(s)||6|
|Published online||11 April 2013|
Zoonotic potential of Enterocytozoon bieneusi among children in rural communities in Thailand
Potentiel zoonotique d’Enterocytozoon bieneusi chez les enfants de communautés rurales en Thaïlande
Department of Protozoology, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
2 Department of Helminthology, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
* Corresponding Author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Accepted: 30 March 2013
Enterocytozoon bieneusi is a common opportunistic intestinal pathogen worldwide. Genotype distribution of E. bieneusi differs by geography and host immunity. In order to investigate the prevalence, genotype characteristics, and host specificity of E. bieneusi in the community, we conducted a preliminary cross-sectional study among children in Western and Northern Thailand. Seventy-eight (78) and 102 stool samples were collected; the prevalence of E. bieneusi was 3.8% and 2.9% by nested PCR in Western and Northern Thailand, respectively. Three genotypes were identified: Genotype D predominated, followed by EbpC, and then novel genotype ETMK1. The first two genotypes have zoonotic potential. Analysis of the genetic proximity of the E. bieneusi ITS sequences from our study, compared with those published in genetic databases, showed that all positive samples were classified into Group 1, the largest group consisting of various host specificity. The present study demonstrates the possible zoonotic transmission of E. bieneusi in rural communities in Thailand. A large-scale investigation of both human and animal samples, as well as improvements in the available phylogenetic tools, will be required to elucidate transmission routes of E. bieneusi in this area.
Enterocytozoon bieneusi est un pathogène intestinal opportuniste commun et mondial. La distribution des génotypes d’E. bieneusi change selon la géographie et l’immunité des hôtes. Pour étudier la prévalence, les caractéristiques des génotypes et la spécificité aux hôtes d’E. bieneusi dans la communauté, nous avons effectué une étude transversale préliminaire chez des enfants de l’ouest et du nord de la Thaïlande. Soixante-dix-huit (78) et 102 échantillons de selles ont été récoltés. La prévalence d’E. bieneusi, étudiée par PCR, était de 3,8 % et 2,9 %, respectivement, dans l’ouest et le nord de la Thaïlande. Trois génotypes ont été identifiés : le génotype D prédominait, suivi par EbpC, et par le génotype nouveau ETMK1. Les deux premiers génotypes ont un potentiel zoonotique. L’analyse de la proximité génétique des séquences ITS des E. bieneusi de notre étude, comparées avec celles publiées dans les bases de données, montre que tous les échantillons positifs sont classés dans le Groupe 1, le plus grand groupe, qui inclut des spécificités d’hôtes variées. Cette étude démontre la possible transmission zoonotique d’E. bieneusi dans les communautés rurales de Thaïlande. Une étude à grande échelle d’échantillons à la fois humains et animaux et des améliorations dans les outils phylogénétiques disponibles seront nécessaires pour élucider les voies de transmission d’E. bieneusi dans cette zone.
Key words: microsporidia / zoonosis / Enterocytozoon bieneusi / children / Thailand
© H. Mori et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2013
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Enterocytozoon bieneusi Desportes et al., 1985  is the most common cause of intestinal microsporidiosis. E. bieneusi infections in immunocompetent hosts are usually self-limiting, while infections in immunocompromised hosts can be life-threatening, especially in patients with AIDS . Recently, awareness of microsporidiosis in non-HIV-infected populations has increased, and infections among organ-transplant recipients, children, the elderly, and patients with malignant disease and diabetes, have been reported . Microscopic diagnosis of E. bieneusi is difficult because the organism is small and similar in size to bacteria. Molecular techniques, such as PCR, are more sensitive than microscopy and have been more widely used in recent times [14–16]. The numbers of E. bieneusi genotypes, based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) nucleotide sequence of the ribosomal RNA gene, have increased rapidly; currently, over 100 genotypes have been published in GenBank [29, 30].
The genotype distribution of E. bieneusi differs by geography. Anthroponotic host-specific genotypes are frequently observed in developed countries, while in developing areas, both host-specific and non-host-specific genotypes have been identified [4, 7, 33]. In addition, recent molecular epidemiological studies have demonstrated that genotype distribution differs between HIV and non-HIV patients [23, 36]. In Thailand, zoonotic genotype D is most commonly identified in HIV patients, however, only anthroponotic genotype A has been identified in the community and in non-HIV individuals [20–22]. Factors influencing this difference in genotype distribution are not clearly understood. There may be an important association in the host/organism relationship, such as host immune status, virulence, or host specificity of the organism itself . So far, molecular epidemiological studies of E. bieneusi have been mainly conducted in HIV and non-HIV patients, while only a few studies have been conducted in the community. For a better understanding of the basic epidemiological characteristics of the organism, such as infection sources and zoonotic potential, surveillance in rural communities is required.
Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional study among children in rural communities in Western and Northern Thailand. We investigated the prevalence of E. bieneusi by nested PCR, genotype characteristics, and host specificity. A phylogenetic tree was constructed for further evaluation of zoonotic potential.
In Thailand, in June and December 2011, 79 and 102 stool samples were collected from children in Kanchanaburi (age 4–12 years) and Nan (age 4–6 years) Provinces respectively. The community in Kanchanaburi Province is located on the Thai-Myanmar border, in Western Thailand. The village in Nan Province is located on the Thai-Lao border, in Northern Thailand. Both communities are known endemic areas for parasitic infections, due to low socio-economic status and poor hygiene standards. The parents of the children received instructions for stool collection and provided consent for the investigation. Stool samples were kept in cool conditions during transportation and preserved at −80 °C until DNA extraction.
DNA was extracted from the samples using a commercially available DNA extraction kit (PSP Spin Stool DNA Kit, STRATEC Inc., Germany) in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Acquired DNA was stored at −20 °C. A nested PCR was performed to amplify a fragment of the large and small subunit of the rRNA gene, including the entire ITS region. The outer primer pair was EBITS3 (5′-GGT CAT AGG GAT GAA GAG-3′) and EBITS4 (5′-TTC GAG TTC TTT CGC GCT C-3′). The inner primer pair was EBITS1 (5′-GCT CTG AAT ATC TAT GGC T-3′) and EBITS2.4 (5′-ATC GCC GAC GGA TCA AGT G-3′) . Each 25 μl PCR mixture contained 1× PCR buffer, 1.5 mM MgCl2, 0.2 mM dNTPs, 2.5 U Taq polymerase (Fermentas, USA), and 0.25 μM of each primer. For primary and secondary PCR, reaction conditions were designed as follows: 35 cycles of 94 °C for 1 min, 55 °C for 1 min, and 72 °C for 1 min. Two microliters of the initial PCR products was used as the template for secondary PCR. Secondary PCR produced fragments of 390 bp. The PCR products were subjected to electrophoresis in a 2% agarose gel and visualized by staining the gel with ethidium bromide. All amplified products were sequenced in both directions using the secondary PCR primers EBITS1 and EBITS2.4 on an ABI 3730xl DNA analyzer (Applied Biosystems). The genotypes of E. bieneusi from each specimen were confirmed by the homology of the sequenced PCR products to the published sequence in GenBank.
Analysis of the genetic proximity of the E. bieneusi ITS sequences from different origins was performed using MEGA Software Version 4 . The evolutionary distance between the different isolates was calculated using the Kimura 2-parameter method, and phylogenetic trees were constructed using the neighbor-joining algorithm. Branch reliability was assessed using bootstrap analyses (1000 replicates).
This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University (MUTM 2012-064-01).
The sequence of E. bieneusi novel genotype ETMK1 in the present study was submitted and deposited in GenBank with Accession No. JX914568.
Prevalence and genotypes of E. bieneusi positive samples are shown in Table 1. The prevalence of E. bieneusi was 3.8% and 2.9% in Kanchanaburi and Nan Provinces, respectively. In Kanchanaburi province, three samples (3.8%) were positive; two samples were genotype D and one was novel genotype ETMK1. ETMK1 was one base different from genotype EbfelA, L and V as shown in Table 2 (EbfelA position 93 [A→C]; L position 118 [A→G]; V position 130 [G→A]). In Nan Province, three samples (2.9%) were positive. Two samples were genotype D and one was genotype EbpC.
Prevalence and genotypes of E. bieneusi among children in Kanchanaburi and Nan provinces, Thailand.
Polymorphic sites in ITS sequences of E. bieneusi isolates.
The result of the phylogenetic tree was poorly reliable due to low bootstrap values (<20) in the internal branches. However, the majority of the classification in the phylogenetic tree matched with the study by Thellier and Breten ; therefore, we followed their classification. Group 1, the largest clade, is further subdivided into eight clades (subgroups 1a–1h). All of the positive samples in the present study were classified into Group 1; genotype D and ETMK1 were classified into subgroup 1a and genotype EbpC into subgroup 1d.
Animal hosts of genotype D, EbpC, EbfelA, and L are shown in Table 3. Except for the novel genotype ETMK1, all positive genotypes in the present study have zoonotic potential. A variety of domestic and wild animal hosts have been reported in genotype D and EbpC, while only felines have been reported as an animal host in genotype EbfelA and L.
Animal hosts in E. bieneusi genotype D, EbpC, EbfelA, and L in published records.
The zoonotic potential of the E. bieneusi positive samples in the community and predominance of E. bieneusi genotype D are key distinguishing features in this study. In Thailand, the most prevalent genotype in HIV patients was reported to be zoonotic genotype D . However, only anthroponotic genotype A has been identified in the community or non-HIV individuals [20, 21]. This is the first report in Thailand to identify zoonotic genotype D in the community.
Prevalence of intestinal microsporidiosis in HIV patients varies widely from 1.5% to 50%, depending on differences in geographic region and diagnostic method . In developed countries, prevalence of intestinal microsporidiosis has decreased after the propagation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) [12, 39]. However in developing areas, intestinal microsporidiosis is still highly prevalent among HIV patients due to the limited availability of HAART . In addition, microsporidia have been recently identified in non-HIV immunosuppressed individuals, such as organ-transplant recipients, children, the elderly, and patients with malignancy and diabetes .
In this study, the prevalence of E. bieneusi infection was 3.8% and 2.9% in Western and Northern Thailand, respectively. Evaluation and comparison of the prevalence with previous studies are difficult due to a paucity of investigations in the community as well as differences in conditions. In Thailand, E. bieneusi has been detected in young children in orphanages; the prevalence was 4.1% by microscopy . In communities around pig farms, the prevalence was 1.4% by microscopy . Taking into consideration these previous studies in Thailand, the infection rate in our investigation is within expectations.
E. bieneusi genotype is influenced by geography. In European countries, genotype B has been most frequently detected followed by genotypes A and C [3, 7]. These genotypes have been reported in humans only. In Africa, zoonotic genotype K has been frequently identified in Uganda and Gabon [4, 38], while anthroponotic genotype A was the most prevalent in Cameroon and Niger [4, 13]. In Latin America, anthroponotic genotype A was most commonly found, followed by zoonotic genotype Type IV and D in Peru . In Australia, only genotype B has been reported as a causative genotype . In China, CHN1, 3, and 4 were all reported, each of which has potential for zoonotic transmission .
Overall, anthroponotic genotypes are commonly seen in developed countries, while both anthroponotic and zoonotic genotypes are observed in developing areas. Opportunities for zoonotic transmission are assumed to be higher in developing countries, especially in rural parts due to frequent animal contact. The transmission routes of E. bieneusi are still not completely understood. Several transmission routes, including direct person-to-person, zoonotic, and food and waterborne, have been reported . With regard to zoonotic transmission, several genotypes have been identified from both humans and animals; genotypes with broad host specificity may be responsible for the zoonotic transmission . Additionally, Cama et al.  reported possible zoonotic transmission from domestic guinea pigs to a child with no evidence of immunosuppression. In the present study, involvement of zoonotic transmission routes has been observed. Food and waterborne transmission, however, cannot be ruled out since both serve as vehicles for the organism.
Distribution of genotype is reported to be different between immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts. According to Liguory et al. , in France, genotype B was most frequently observed in HIV patients, whereas genotype C in non-HIV-infected patients. Both genotypes have been reported in humans only. Similar results were observed in the Netherlands; genotype C was identified in non-HIV patients only. Genotype D, the most prevalent genotype in this study, is widely distributed, and is often reported in humans in many countries in Europe, Africa, Latin America, and Asia. However, genotype D has always been identified in HIV patients, except for three HIV-negative individuals identified in a rural community in Cameroon . Although the factors influencing these differences in genotype distribution are still undetermined, the involvement of host immunity, pathogenicity of the organism, and routes of transmission have been hypothesized .
Genotype D and EbpC have less host specificity. Genotype D has been reported in a wide range of animals: domestic animals such as dogs, horses, and swine, and in wild animals such as beavers, falcons, fox macaques, muskrats, and raccoons . Genotype EbpC also has been identified in a broad range of wild animal hosts, but not in domestic animals; only in pigs has it been reported. It is assumed that transmission between humans, domestic and wild animals occurs in these genotypes. In Thailand, genotype EbpC has frequently been identified in pigs, and they may be the source of transmission in the area . ETMK1, a novel genotype in this study, was one base different from genotype L, V, and EbfelA. Genotype L and EbfelA are as yet reported in felines only , however, genotype V has been identified in humans. Considering the similarity, ETMK1 may have zoonotic potential especially related with felines.
Analysis of the genetic proximity of the E. bieneusi ITS sequences from our study with those previously published in genetic databases demonstrated that genotype D and ETMK1 were classified into subgroup 1a and genotype EbpC into subgroup 1d. According to Thellier and Breton , the largest groups (Group 1) consist of both anthroponotic and zoonotic strains, whereas the other groups consist of host-adapted zoonotic strains with low public health priority. Group 1 is divided into eight major subgroups: subgroup 1a and 1d are large, both human or animal-specific and human-animal common genotypes are classified into the clades. There is a problem in constructing a phylogenetic tree in E. bieneusi ITS sequence – it is the only available polymorphic marker in E. bieneusi and is not reliable enough for statistical support. Detailed subtype classification therefore differs among researchers, resulting in confusion in the classification itself, and hampering evaluation of host specificity of the organism [4, 11, 17, 37]. New sets of markers will be required for further analysis .
This study had some limitations. First, host immunity such as HIV status was not investigated in the present study; immunocompromised patients may have a higher infection rate of E. bieneusi zoonotic strains. Second, the sample size was not large enough to fully analyze genotype characteristics in the community. Third, only human samples were collected in this study; animal samples are required to evaluate further zoonotic transmission routes. The present study is a preliminary study and we are planning a large-scale longitudinal study in which animal and environmental samples, in addition to human samples, will be collected and investigated comprehensively.
In conclusion, this investigation demonstrated zoonotic strains of E. bieneusi with a predominance of genotype D in rural communities in Thailand. Our findings show possible zoonotic transmission of E. bieneusi in rural communities in Western and Northern Thailand. A future large-scale study to investigate humans and animals, as well as the improvement of available phylogenetic tools, will be required to elucidate epidemiological characteristics of E. bieneusi.
The authors wish to thank Saovanee Leelayoova and Mathirut Mungthin for donating E. bieneusi positive samples.
- Abe N, Kimata I. 2010. Molecular survey of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in a Japanese porcine population. Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 10(4), 425–427. [CrossRef] (In the text)
- Anane S, Attouchi H. 2010. Microsporidiosis: epidemiology, clinical data and therapy. Gastroenterologie Clinique et Biologique, 34(8–9), 450–464. [CrossRef] [PubMed] (In the text)
- Breitenmoser AC, Mathis A, Burgi E, Weber R, Deplazes P. 1999. High prevalence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in swine with four genotypes that differ from those identified in humans. Parasitology, 118(Pt 5), 447–453. [CrossRef] [PubMed] (In the text)
- Breton J, Bart-Delabesse E, Biligui S, Carbone A, Seiller X, Okome-Nkoumou M, Nzamba C, Kombila M, Accoceberry I, Thellier M. 2007. New highly divergent rRNA sequence among biodiverse genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi strains isolated from humans in Gabon and Cameroon. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 45(8), 2580–2589. [CrossRef] [PubMed] (In the text)
- Buckholt MA, Lee JH, Tzipori S. 2002. Prevalence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in swine: an 18-month survey at a slaughterhouse in Massachusetts. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 68(5), 2595–2599. [CrossRef] [PubMed] (In the text)
- Cama VA, Pearson J, Cabrera L, Pacheco L, Gilman R, Meyer S, Ortega Y, Xiao L. 2007. Transmission of Enterocytozoon bieneusi between a child and guinea pigs. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 45(8), 2708–2710. [CrossRef] [PubMed] (In the text)
- Dengjel B, Zahler M, Hermanns W, Heinritzi K, Spillmann T, Thomschke A, Löscher T, Gothe R, Rinder H. 2001. Zoonotic potential of Enterocytozoon bieneusi. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 39(12), 4495–4499. [CrossRef] [PubMed] (In the text)
- Desportes I, Le Charpentier Y, Galian A, Bernard F, Cochand-Priollet B, Lavergne A, Ravisse P, Modigliani R. 1985. Occurrence of a new microsporidan: Enterocytozoon bieneusi n.g., n. sp., in the enterocytes of a human patient with AIDS. Journal of Protozoology, 32(2), 250–254. [CrossRef] (In the text)
- Didier ES. 2005. Microsporidiosis: an emerging and opportunistic infection in humans and animals. Acta Tropica, 94(1), 61–76. [CrossRef] [PubMed] (In the text)
- Didier ES, Weiss LM. 2011. Microsporidiosis: not just in AIDS patients. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, 24(5), 490–495. [CrossRef] [PubMed] (In the text)
- Drosten C, Laabs J, Kuhn EM, Schottelius J. 2005. Interspecies transmission of Enterocytozoon bieneusi supported by observations in laboratory animals and phylogeny. Medical Microbiology and Immunology, 194(4), 207–209. [CrossRef] [PubMed] (In the text)
- Dworkin MS, Buskin SE, Davidson AJ, Cohn DL, Morse A, Inungu J, Adams MR, McCombs SB, Jones JL, Moura H, Visvesvara G, Pieniazek NJ, Navin TR. 2007. Prevalence of intestinal microsporidiosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with diarrhea in major United States cities. Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo, 49(6), 339–342. [CrossRef] [PubMed] (In the text)
- Espern A, Morio F, Miegeville M, Illa H, Abdoulaye M, Meyssonnier V, Adehossi E, Lejeune A, Cam PD, Besse B, Gay-Andrieu F. 2007. Molecular study of microsporidiosis due to Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis among human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients from two geographical areas: Niamey, Niger, and Hanoi. Vietnam. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 45(9), 2999–3002. [CrossRef] [PubMed] (In the text)
- Fedorko DP, Nelson NA, Cartwright CP. 1995. Identification of microsporidia in stool specimens by using PCR and restriction endonucleases. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 33(7), 1739–1741. [PubMed] (In the text)
- Franzen C, Muller A. 1999. Molecular techniques for detection, species differentiation, and phylogenetic analysis of microsporidia. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 12(2), 243–285. [PubMed]
- Garcia LS. 2002. Laboratory identification of the microsporidia. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 40(6), 1892–1901. [CrossRef] [PubMed] (In the text)
- Henriques-Gil N, Haro M, Izquierdo F, Fenoy S, del Aguila C. 2010. Phylogenetic approach to the variability of the microsporidian Enterocytozoon bieneusi and its implications for inter- and intrahost transmission. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 76(10), 3333–3342. [CrossRef] [PubMed] (In the text)
- Lee JH. 2007. Prevalence and molecular characteristics of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in cattle in Korea. Parasitology Research, 101(2), 391–396. [CrossRef] [PubMed] (In the text)
- Lee JH. 2008. Molecular detection of Enterocytozoon bieneusi and identification of a potentially human-pathogenic genotype in milk. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 74(5), 1664–1666. [CrossRef] [PubMed] (In the text)
- Leelayoova S, Piyaraj P, Subrungruang I, Pagornrat W, Naaglor T, Phumklan S, Taamasri P, Suwanasri J, Mungthin M, et al. 2009. Genotypic characterization of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in specimens from pigs and humans in a pig farm community in Central Thailand. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 47(5), 1572–1574. [CrossRef] [PubMed] (In the text)
- Leelayoova S, Subrungruang I, Rangsin R, Chavalitshewinkoon-Petmitr P, Worapong J, Naaglor T, Mungthin M. 2005. Transmission of Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotype a in a Thai orphanage. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 73(1), 104–107. (In the text)
- Leelayoova S, Subrungruang I, Suputtamongkol Y, Worapong J, Petmitr PC, Mungthin M. 2006. Identification of genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi from stool samples from human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in Thailand. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 44(8), 3001–3004. [CrossRef] [PubMed] (In the text)
- Liguory O, Sarfati C, Derouin F, Molina JM. 2001. Evidence of different Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes in patients with and without human immunodeficiency virus infection. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 39(7), 2672–2674. [CrossRef] [PubMed] (In the text)
- Lobo ML, Xiao L, Cama V, Stevens T, Antunes F, Matos O. 2006. Genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in mammals in Portugal. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 53(Suppl 1), S61–S64. [CrossRef] (In the text)
- Mathis A, Breitenmoser AC, Deplazes P. 1999. Detection of new Enterocytozoon genotypes in faecal samples of farm dogs and a cat. Parasite, 6(2), 189–193. [EDP Sciences] [PubMed] (In the text)
- Muller MG, Kinne J, Schuster RK, Walochnik J. 2008. Outbreak of microsporidiosis caused by Enterocytozoon bieneusi in falcons. Veterinary Parasitology, 152(1–2), 67–78. [CrossRef] [PubMed] (In the text)
- Reetz J, Nockler K, Reckinger S, Vargas MM, Weiske W, Broglia A. 2009. Identification of Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotype III and two novel genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in swine. Parasitology International, 58(3), 285–292. [CrossRef] [PubMed] (In the text)
- Sak B, Kvac M, Hanzlikova D, Cama V. 2008. First report of Enterocytozoon bieneusi infection on a pig farm in the Czech Republic. Veterinary Parasitology, 153(3–4), 220–224. [CrossRef] [PubMed] (In the text)
- Santin M, Fayer R. 2009. Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotype nomenclature based on the internal transcribed spacer sequence: a consensus. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 56(1), 34–38. [CrossRef] (In the text)
- Santin M, Fayer R. 2011. Microsporidiosis: Enterocytozoon bieneusi in domesticated and wild animals. Research in Veterinary Science, 90(3), 363–371. [CrossRef] [PubMed] (In the text)
- Santin M, Trout JM, Fayer R. 2005. Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes in dairy cattle in the eastern United States. Parasitology Research, 97(6), 535–538. [CrossRef] [PubMed] (In the text)
- Santin M, Vecino JA, Fayer R. 2010. A zoonotic genotype of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in horses. Journal of Parasitology, 96(1), 157–161. [CrossRef] (In the text)
- Stark D, van Hal S, Barratt J, Ellis J, Marriott D, Harkness J. 2009. Limited genetic diversity among genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi strains isolated from HIV-infected patients from Sydney, Australia. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 58(Pt 3), 355–357. [CrossRef] [PubMed] (In the text)
- Sulaiman IM, Fayer R, Lal AA, Trout JM, Schaefer FW, 3rd, Xiao L. 2003. Molecular characterization of microsporidia indicates that wild mammals Harbor host-adapted Enterocytozoon spp. as well as human-pathogenic Enterocytozoon bieneusi. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 69(8), 4495–4501. [CrossRef] [PubMed] (In the text)
- Tamura K, Dudley J, Nei M, Kumar S. 2007. MEGA4: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software version 4.0. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 24(8), 1596–1599. [CrossRef] [PubMed] (In the text)
- ten Hove RJ, Van Lieshout L, Beadsworth MB, Perez MA, Spee K, Claas EC, Verweij JJ. 2009. Characterization of genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in immunosuppressed and immunocompetent patient groups. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 56(4), 388–393. [CrossRef] (In the text)
- Thellier M, Breton J. 2008. Enterocytozoon bieneusi in human and animals, focus on laboratory identification and molecular epidemiology. Parasite, 15(3), 349–358. [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences] [PubMed] (In the text)
- Tumwine JK, Kekitiinwa A, Nabukeera N, Akiyoshi DE, Buckholt MA, Tzipori S. 2002. Enterocytozoon bieneusi among children with diarrhea attending Mulago Hospital in Uganda. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 67(3), 299–303. (In the text)
- van Hal SJ, Muthiah K, Matthews G, Harkness J, Stark D, Cooper D, Marriott D. 2007. Declining incidence of intestinal microsporidiosis and reduction in AIDS-related mortality following introduction of HAART in Sydney, Australia. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 101(11), 1096–1100. [CrossRef] [PubMed] (In the text)
- Zhang X, Wang Z, Su Y, Liang X, Sun X, Peng S, Lu H, Jiang N, Yin J, Xiang M, Chen Q. 2011. Identification and genotyping of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in China. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 49(5), 2006–2008. [CrossRef] [PubMed] (In the text)
Cite this article as: Mori H, Mahittikorn A, Watthanakulpanich D, Komalamisra C & Sukthana Y: Zoonotic potential of Enterocytozoon bieneusi among children in rural communities in Thailand. Parasite, 2013, 20, 14 (2013).
Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.
Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.
Initial download of the metrics may take a while.