Open Access
Volume 28, 2021
Article Number 77
Number of page(s) 9
Published online 10 November 2021
  1. Allen MJ, Morby AP, White GF. 2004. Cooperativity in the binding of the cationic biocide polyhexamethylene biguanide to nucleic acids. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 318(2), 397–404. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  2. Allen MJ, White GF, Morby AP. 2006. The response of Escherichia coli to exposure to the biocide polyhexamethylene biguanide. Microbiology, 152(4), 989–1000. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  3. Anzenbacher P, Anzenbacherova E. 2001. Cytochromes P450 and metabolism of xenobiotics. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 58(5–6), 737–747. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  4. Auran JD, Starr MB, Jakobiec FA. 1987. Acanthamoeba keratitis. Cornea, 6(1), 2–26. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  5. Bateman E. 2010. Expression plasmids and production of EGFP in stably transfected Acanthamoeba. Protein Expression and Purification, 70(1), 95–100. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  6. Brown T, Cursons R, Keys E. 1982. Amoebae from Antarctic soil and water. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 44(2), 491–493. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  7. Broxton P, Woodcock P, Gilbert P. 1983. A study of the antibacterial activity of some polyhexamethylene biguanides towards Escherichia coli ATCC 8739. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 54(3), 345–353. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  8. Cvilink V, Skalova L, Szotakova B, Lamka J, Kostiainen R, Ketola RA. 2008. LC–MS–MS identification of albendazole and flubendazole metabolites formed ex vivo by Haemonchus contortus. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 391(1), 337–343. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  9. Guengerich FP. 2008. Cytochrome p450 and chemical toxicology. Chemical Research in Toxicology, 21(1), 70–83. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  10. Huang F-C, Shih M-H, Chang K-F, Huang J-M, Shin J-W, Lin W-C. 2017. Characterizing clinical isolates of Acanthamoeba castellanii with high resistance to polyhexamethylene biguanide in Taiwan. Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, 50(5), 570–577. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  11. Ingelman-Sundberg M. 2004. Human drug metabolising cytochrome P450 enzymes: properties and polymorphisms. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Archives of Pharmacology, 369(1), 89–104. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  12. Jha BK, Jung H-J, Seo I, Kim HA, Suh S-I, Suh M-H, Baek W-K. 2014. Chloroquine has a cytotoxic effect on Acanthamoeba encystation through modulation of autophagy. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 58(10), 6235–6241. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  13. Kamaruzzaman NF, Chong SQ, Edmondson-Brown KM, Ntow-Boahene W, Bardiau M, Good L. 2017. Bactericidal and anti-biofilm effects of polyhexamethylene Biguanide in models of intracellular and biofilm of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis. Frontiers in Microbiology, 8, 1518. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  14. Kelley LA, Mezulis S, Yates CM, Wass MN, Sternberg MJ. 2015. The Phyre2 web portal for protein modeling, prediction and analysis. Nature Protocols, 10(6), 845–858. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  15. Kitzmann AS, Goins KM, Sutphin JE, Wagoner MD. 2009. Keratoplasty for treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis. Ophthalmology, 116(5), 864–869. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  16. Kliescikova J, Kulda J, Nohynkova E. 2011. Stress-induced pseudocyst formation-a newly identified mechanism of protection against organic solvents in Acanthamoebae of the T4 genotype. Protist, 162(1), 58–69. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  17. Kumar S, Stecher G, Tamura K. 2016. MEGA7: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 7.0 for bigger datasets. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 33(7), 1870–1874. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  18. Laing ST, Ivens A, Laing R, Ravikumar S, Butler V, Woods DJ, Gilleard JS. 2010. Characterization of the xenobiotic response of Caenorhabditis elegans to the anthelmintic drug albendazole and the identification of novel drug glucoside metabolites. Biochemical Journal, 432(3), 505–516. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  19. Larkin D, Kilvington S, Dart J. 1992. Treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis with polyhexamethylene biguanide. Ophthalmology, 99(2), 185–191. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  20. Li M-L, Shih M-H, Huang F-C, Tseng S-H, Chen C-C. 2012. Treatment of early Acanthamoeba keratitis with alcohol-assisted epithelial debridement. Cornea, 31(4), 442–446. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  21. Lim N, Goh D, Bunce C, Xing W, Fraenkel G, Poole TR, Ficker L. 2008. Comparison of polyhexamethylene biguanide and chlorhexidine as monotherapy agents in the treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 145(1), 130–135. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  22. Lim C-C, Peng I-C, Huang Y-H. 2020. Safety of intrastromal injection of polyhexamethylene biguanide and propamidine isethionate in a rabbit model. Journal of Advanced Research, 22, 1–6. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  23. Lloyd D. 2014. Encystment in Acanthamoeba castellanii: a review. Experimental Parasitology, 145, S20–S27. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  24. Lorenzo-Morales J, Khan NA, Walochnik J. 2015. An update on Acanthamoeba keratitis: diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment. Parasite, 22, 10. [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  25. McCulley JP, Alizadeh H, Niederkorn JY. 1995. Acanthamoeba keratitis. Eye & Contact Lens, 21(1), 73–76. [Google Scholar]
  26. Mikić IM, Cigić L, Kero D, Govorko DK, Mehičić GP, Simeon P. 2018. Antimicrobial effectiveness of polyhexamethylene biguanide on Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Candida albicans. Medicinski Glasnik, 15(2), 132–138. [Google Scholar]
  27. Moon E-K, Hong Y, Chung D-I, Kong H-H. 2012. Cysteine protease involving in autophagosomal degradation of mitochondria during encystation of Acanthamoeba. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 185(2), 121–126. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  28. Ndifor AM, Ward SA, Howells RE. 1990. Cytochrome P-450 activity in malarial parasites and its possible relationship to chloroquine resistance. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 41(2), 251–257. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  29. Nebert DW, Wikvall K, Miller WL. 2013. Human cytochromes P450 in health and disease. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 368(1612), 20120431. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  30. Pinna A. 2002. Acanthamoeba and disinfecting contact lens solutions. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 86(12), 1461–1462. [Google Scholar]
  31. Porter T, Coon M. 1991. Cytochrome P-450. Multiplicity of isoforms, substrates, and catalytic and regulatory mechanisms. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 266(21), 13469–13472. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  32. Seliskar M, Rozman D. 2007. Mammalian cytochromes P450 – importance of tissue specificity. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) – General Subjects, 1770(3), 458–466. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  33. Stamatakis A. 2014. RAxML version 8: a tool for phylogenetic analysis and post-analysis of large phylogenies. Bioinformatics, 30(9), 1312–1313. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  34. Turman CM, Hatley JM, Ryder DJ, Ravindranath V, Strobel HW. 2006. Alternative splicing within the human cytochrome P450 superfamily with an emphasis on the brain: the convolution continues. Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology, 2(3), 399–418. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  35. Urlacher VB, Girhard M. 2012. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases: an update on perspectives for synthetic application. Trends in Biotechnology, 30(1), 26–36. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  36. Varga JH, Wolf TC, Jensen HG, Parmley VC, Rowsey JJ. 1993. Combined treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis with propamidine, neomycin, and polyhexamethylene biguanide. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 115(4), 466–470. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  37. Visvesvara GS, Moura H, Schuster FL. 2007. Pathogenic and opportunistic free-living amoebae: Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri, and Sappinia diploidea. FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology, 50(1), 1–26. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  38. Walls G, Noonan L, Wilson E, Holland D, Briggs S. 2013. Successful use of locally applied polyhexamethylene biguanide as an adjunct to the treatment of fungal osteomyelitis. Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology, 24(2), 109–112. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  39. Werthen M, Davoudi M, Sonesson A, Nitsche D, Mörgelin M, Blom K, Schmidtchen A. 2004. Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced infection and degradation of human wound fluid and skin proteins ex vivo are eradicated by a synthetic cationic polymer. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 54(4), 772–779. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  40. Zhang X, Zhang T, Liu J, Li M, Fu Y, Xu J, Liu Q. 2017. Functional characterization of a unique cytochrome P450 in Toxoplasma gondii. Oncotarget, 8(70), 115079. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.

Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.

Initial download of the metrics may take a while.