Open Access
Review Article
Volume 25, 2018
Article Number 10
Number of page(s) 25
Published online 12 March 2018
  1. Aguiar GP, Melo NI, Wakabayashi KAL, Lopes MHS, Mantovani ALL, Dias HJ, Fukui MJ, Keles LC, Rodrigues V, Groppo M, Silva-Filho AA, Cunha WR, Magalhães LG, Crotti AEM. 2013. Chemical composition and in vitro schistosomicidal activity of the essential oil from the flowers of Bidens sulphurea (Asteraceae). Natural Product Research, 27, 920–924. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  2. Akendengué B. 1992. Medicinal plants used by the Fang traditional healers in Equatorial Guinea. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 37, 165–173. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  3. Alvarenga SA, Ferreira MJ, Emerenciano V, Cabrol-Bass D. 2001. Chemosystematic studies of natural compounds isolated from Asteraceae: characterization of tribes by principal component analysis. Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems, 56, 27–37. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  4. Ashok P, Koti BC, Thippeswamy AHM, Tikare VP, Dabadi P, Viswanathaswamy AHM. 2010. Evaluation of antiinflammatory activity of Centratherum anthelminticum (L) Kuntze Seed. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 72, 697–703. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  5. Bailen M, Julio LF, Diaz CE, Sanz J, Martínez-Díaz RA, Cabrera R, Burillo J, Gonzalez-Coloma A. 2013. Chemical composition and biological effects of essential oils from Artemisia absinthium L. cultivated under different environmental conditions. Industrial Crops and Products, 49, 102–107. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  6. Bapna S, Adsule S, Shirshat Mahendra S, Jadhav S, Patil LS, Deshmukh RA. 2007. Anti–malarial activity of Eclipta alba against Plasmodium berghei infection in mice. Journal of Communicable Diseases, 39, 91–104. [Google Scholar]
  7. Bartolome AP, Villaseñor IM, Yang W-C., Yang W-C. 2013. Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae): Botanical properties, traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 340215. [Google Scholar]
  8. Becker JV, van der Merwe MM, van Brummelen AC, Pillay P, Crampton BG, Mmutlane EM, Parkinson C, van Heerden FR, Crouch NR, Smith PJ, Mancama DT, Maharaj VJ. 2011. In vitro anti–plasmodial activity of Dicoma anomala subsp. gerrardii (Asteraceae): identification of its main active constituent, structure–activity relationship studies and gene expression profiling. Malaria Journal, 10, 295. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  9. Berger I, Passreiter CM, Cáceres A, Kubelka W. 2001. Antiprotozoal activity of Neurolaena lobata. Phytotherapy Research, 15, 327–330. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  10. Bero J, Hannaert V, Chataigné G, Hérent MF, Quetin-Leclercq J. 2011. In vitro antitrypanosomal and antileishmanial activity of plants used in Benin in traditional medicine and bio-guided fractionation of the most active extract. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 137, 998–1002. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  11. Bhinge SD, Hogade MG, Chavan C, Kumbhar M, Chature V. 2010. In vitro anthelmintic activity of herb extract of Eclipta prostrate L. against Pheretima posthuma. Asian Journal of Pharma Clinical Research, 3, 229–230. [Google Scholar]
  12. Bisht VK, Purohit V. 2010. Medicinal and aromatic plants diversity of Asteraceae in Uttarakhand. Nature and Science, 8, 121–128. [Google Scholar]
  13. Brandão MG, Krettli AU, Soares LS, Nery CG, Marinuzzi HC. 1997. Antimalarial activity of extracts and fractions from Bidens pilosa and other Bidens species (Asteraceae) correlated with the presence of acetylene and flavonoid compounds. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 57, 131–138. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  14. Bringmann G, Saeb W, Assi L, François G, Sankara Narayanan A, Peters K, Peters EM. 1997. Betulinic acid: Isolation from Triphyophyllum peltatum and Ancistrocladus heyneanus, antimalarial activity, and crystal structure of the benzyl ester. Planta Medica, 63, 255–257. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  15. Brun R, Don R, Jacobs RT, Wang MZ, Barrett MP. 2011. Development of novel drugs for human African trypanosomiasis. Future Microbiology, 6, 677–691. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  16. Byng JW. The flowering plants handbook: a practical guide to families and genera of the world. Plant Gateway Ltd., Hertford, Plant Gateway Ltd., 2004. [Google Scholar]
  17. Calzada F, Meckes M, Cedillo-Rivera R. 1999. Antiamoebic and antigiardial activity of plant flavonoids. Planta Medica, 65, 78–80. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  18. Cox PA. 2000. Will tribal knowledge survive the millennium? Science, 287, 44–45. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  19. Das M, Mukherjee A. 2014. Elephantopus scaber L.: An overview. Indian Journal Life Science, 4, 51–54. [Google Scholar]
  20. de Almeida LMS, Carvalho LSA de, Gazolla MC, Silva Pinto PL, Silva MPN da, de Moraes J, Da Silva Filho AA. 2016. Flavonoids and sesquiterpene lactones from Artemisia absinthium and Tanacetum parthenium against Schistosoma mansoni worms. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 9521349. [Google Scholar]
  21. Elford BC, Roberts MF, Phillipson JD, Wilson RJM. 1987. Potentiation of the antimalarial activity of qinghaosu by methoxylated flavones. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 81, 434–436. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  22. Enwerem NM, Okogun JI, Wambebe CO, Okorie DA, Akah PA. 2001. Anthelmintic activity of the stem bark extracts of Berlina grandiflora and one of its active principles, Betulinic acid. Phytomedicine, 8, 112–114. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  23. Ezenyi IC, Salawu OA, Kulkarni R, Emeje M. 2014. Antiplasmodial activity-aided isolation and identification of quercetin-4’-methyl ether in Chromolaena odorata leaf fraction with high activity against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. Parasitology Research, 113, 4415–4422. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  24. Faizi S, Fayyaz S, Bano S, Yawar Iqbal E, Siddiqi H, Naz A, Naz A. 2011. Isolation of nematicidal compounds from Tagetes patula L. yellow flowers: Structure–activity relationship studies against cyst nematode Heterodera zeae infective stage larvae. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59, 9080–9093. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  25. Feyera T, Terefe G, Shibeshi W. Evaluation of In vivo antitrypanosomal activity of crude extracts of Artemisia abyssinica against a Trypanosoma congolense isolate. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 14, 117. [Google Scholar]
  26. Foster JG, Cassida KA, Turner KE. 2011. In vitro analysis of the anthelmintic activity of forage chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) sesquiterpene lactones against a predominantly Haemonchus contortus egg population. Veterinary Parasitology, 180, 298–306. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  27. Fournet A, Barrios AA, Muñoz V. 1994. Leishmanicidal and trypanocidal activities of Bolivian medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 41, 19–37. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  28. François G, Passreiter CM, Woerdenbag HJ, Van Looveren M. 1996. Antiplasmodial activities and cytotoxic effects of aqueous extracts and sesquiterpene lactones from Neurolaena lobata. Planta Medica, 62, 126–129. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  29. Freiburghaus F, Ogwal EN, Nkunya MH, Kaminsky R, Brun R. 1996. In vitro antitrypanosomal activity of African plants used in traditional medicine in Uganda to treat sleeping sickness. Tropical Medicine and International Health, 1, 765–771. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  30. Funk VA, Bayer RJ, Keeley S, Chan R, Watson L, Gemeinholzer B, Schilling E, Panero JL, Baldwin BG, Garcia-Jacas N, Susanna A, Jansen RK. Everywhere but Antarctica: Using a supertree to understand the diversity and distribution of the Compositae. Biologiske Skrifter, 55, 343–374. [Google Scholar]
  31. Gachet MS, Lecaro JS, Kaiser M, Brun R, Navarrete H, Muñoz RA, Bauer R, Schuhly W. 2010. Assessment of anti-protozoal activity of plants traditionally used in Ecuador in the treatment of leishmaniasis. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 128, 184–197. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  32. Gallwitz H, Bonse S, Martinez-Cruz A, Schlichting I, Schumacher K, Krauth-Siegel RL. 1999. Ajoene is an inhibitor and subversive substrate of human glutathione reductase and Trypanosoma cruzi trypanothione reductase: Crystallographic, kinetic, and spectroscopic studies. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 42, 364–372. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  33. Gamboa-Leon R, Vera-Ku M, Peraza-Sanchez SR, Ku-Chulim C, Horta-Baas A, Rosado-Vallado M. 2014. Antileishmanial activity of a mixture of Tridax procumbens and Allium sativum in mice. Parasite, 21, 15. [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  34. Ganfon H, Bero J, Tchinda AT, Gbaguidi F, Gbenou J, Moudachirou M, Frédérich M, Quetin-Leclercq J. 2012. Antiparasitic activities of two sesquiterpenic lactones isolated from Acanthospermum hispidum D.C. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 141, 411–417. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  35. García M, Monzote L, Scull R, Herrera P. 2012. Activity of Cuban plants extracts against Leishmania amazonensis. ISRN Pharmacology, 104540. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  36. Gertrude Mbogning Tayo, Payne VK, Poné JW, Claire KM, Jeannette Y, Alidou MN, Mbida M, Bilong CFB. 2012. In vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activities of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the leaves of Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae) on Heligmosomoides bakeri (Nematoda: Heligmosomatidae). International Journal of Phytomedicines and Related Industries, 4, 121–125. [Google Scholar]
  37. Girach RD, Brahmam M, Misra MK, Ahmed M. 1998. Indigenous phytotherapy for filariasis from Orissa. Ancient Science of Life, 17, 224–227. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  38. Goffin E, da Cunha AP, Ziemons E, Tits M, Angenot L, Frederich M. 2003. Quantification of tagitinin C in Tithonia diversifolia by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Phytochemical Analysis, 14, 378–380. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  39. Gogate G, Ananthasubramanian L, Nargund KS, Bhattacharya SC. 1986. Some interesting sesqueterpenoids from Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. Indian Journal of Chemistry, 25, 233–238. [Google Scholar]
  40. Grecco SS, Reimão JQ, Tempone AG, Sartorelli P, Cunha RLOR, Romoff P, Ferreira MJP, Fávero OA, Lago JHG. 2012. In vitro antileishmanial and antitrypanosomal activities of flavanones from Baccharis retusa DC. (Asteraceae). Experimental Parasitology, 130, 141–145. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  41. Gupta P, Vasudeva N. 2010. In vitro antiplasmodial and antimicrobial potential of Tagetes erecta roots. Pharmaceutical Biology, 48, 1218–1223. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  42. Gurib-Fakim A. 2006. Medicinal plants: Traditions of yesterday and drugs of tomorrow. Molecular Aspects of Medicine 27, 1–93. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  43. Hatimi S, Boudouma M, Bichichi M, Chaib N, Idrissi NG. 2001. In vitro evaluation of antileishmania activity of Artemisia herba alba Asso. Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique, 94, 29–31. [Google Scholar]
  44. Hördegen P, Cabaret J, Hertzberg H, Langhans W, Maurer V. 2006. In vitro screening of six anthelmintic plant products against larval Haemonchus contortus with a modified methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium reduction assay. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 108, 85–89. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  45. Iqbal Z, Lateef M, Jabbar A, Akhtar MS, Khan MN. 2006. Anthelmintic activity of Vernonia anthelmintica seeds against Trichostrongylid nematodes of sheep. Pharmaceutical Biology, 44, 563–567. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  46. Islam MT, Das PR, Kabir MH, Akter S, Khatun Z, Haque MM, Roney MSI, Jahan R, Rahmatullah M. 2012. Acanthaceae and Asteraceae family plants used by folk medicinal practitioners for treatment of malaria in Chittagong and Sylhet divisions of Bangladesh. American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 6, 146–152. [Google Scholar]
  47. Jahan R, Al-Nahain A, Majumder S, Rahmatullah M. 2014. Ethnopharmacological Significance of Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk. (Asteraceae). International Scholarly Research Notices, 385969. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  48. Jansen O, Tits M, Angenot L, Nicolas JP, Patrick De Mol JBN, Frédérich M. 2012. Anti–plasmodial activity of Dicoma tomentosa (Asteraceae) and identification of urospermal A–15–O–acetate as the main active compound. Malaria Journal, 11, 289. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  49. Jesus JA, Fragoso TN, Yamamoto ES, Laurenti MD, Silva MS, Ferreira AF, Lago JHG, Gomes GS, Passero LFD. 2017. Therapeutic effect of ursolic acid in experimental visceral leishmaniasis. International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug Resistance, 7, 1–11. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  50. Kamaraj C, Rahuman AA. 2011. Efficacy of anthelmintic properties of medicinal plant extracts against Haemonchus contortus. Research in Veterinary Science, 91, 400–404. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  51. Kamboj A, Saluja AK. 2008. Ageratum conyzoides L.: A review on its phytochemical and pharmacological profile. International Journal of Green Pharmacy, 2, 59–68. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  52. Kamboj A, Saluja AK. 2010. Phytopharmacological review of Xanthium strumarium L. (Cocklebur). International Journal of Green Pharmacy, 4, 129–139. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  53. Kantamreddi VSS, Parida S, Kommula SM, Wright CW. 2009. Phytotherapy used in Orissa state, India for treating malaria. Phytotherapy Research, 23, 1638–1641. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  54. Kayser O, Kiderlen AF, Folkens U, Kolodziej H. 1999. In vitro leishmanicidal activity of Aurones. Planta Medica, 65, 316–319. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  55. Kimura Y, Hiraoka K, Kawano T, Fujioka S, Shimada A. 2017. Nematicidal activities of acetylene compounds from Coreopsis lanceolata L. Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung C,63, 843–847. [Google Scholar]
  56. Khanna VG, Kannabiran K, Getti G. 2009. Leishmanicidal activity of saponins isolated from the leaves of Eclipta prostrata and Gymnema sylvestre. Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 41, 32–35. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  57. Klongsiriwet C, Quijada J, Williams AR, Mueller-Harvey I, Williamson EM, Hoste H. 2015. Synergistic inhibition of Haemonchus contortus exsheathment by flavonoid monomers and condensed tannins. International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug Resistance, 5, 127–134. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  58. Koide T, Nose M, Inoue M, Ogihara Y, Yabu Y, Ohta N. 1998. Trypanocidal effects of gallic acid and related compounds. Planta Medica, 64, 27–30. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  59. Komlaga G, Agyare C, Dickson RA, Mensah MLK, Annan K, Loiseau PM, et al. 2015. Medicinal plants and finished marketed herbal products used in the treatment of malaria in the Ashanti region, Ghana. Journal of Ethnopharmacology,172, 333–436. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  60. Koshimizu K, Ohigashi H, Huffman MA. Use of Vernonia amygdalina by wild chimpanzee: possible roles of its bitter and related constituents. Physiology and Behavior, 56, 1209–1216. [Google Scholar]
  61. Kovendan K, Arivoli S, Maheshwaran R, Baskar K, Vincent S. 2012. Larvicidal efficacy of Sphaeranthus indicus, Cleistanthus collinus and Murraya koenigii leaf extracts against filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitology Research, 111, 1025–1035. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  62. Kuhn T, Wang Y. 2008. Artemisinin-an innovative cornerstone for anti-malaria therapy. Progress in Drug Research, 66, 385–422. [Google Scholar]
  63. Kumari P, Misra K, Sisodia B, Faridi U, Srivastava S, Luqman S, Darokar M, Negi A, Gupta M, Singh S, Kumar J. 2009. A promising anticancer and antimalarial component from the leaves of Bidens pilosa. Planta Medica, 75, 59–61. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  64. Lans C, Turner N, Khan T, Brauer G. 2007. Ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in pigs and pets in British Columbia, Canada. Veterinary Parasitology, 148, 325–340. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  65. Lavault M, Landreau A, Larcher G, Bouchara J-P, Pagniez F, Le Pape P, Richomme P. 2005. Antileishmanial and antifungal activities of xanthanolides isolated from Xanthium macrocarpum. Fitoterapia, 76, 363–366. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  66. Lehane AM, Saliba KJ. 2008. Common dietary flavonoids inhibit the growth of the intraerythrocytic malaria parasite. BMC Research Notes, 1, 26. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  67. Lima Silva F, Fischer DCH, Fechine-Tavares J, Sobral-Silva M, Filgueiras de Athayde-Filho P, Barbosa-Filho JM. 2011. Compilation of secondary metabolites from Bidens pilosa L. Molecules 16, 1070–1102. [Google Scholar]
  68. Lin YL, Chang CC, Lee IJ. 2008. Review on phytochemical study of Asteraceae in Taiwan (1996-2005). Journal of Chinese Medicine, 1934, 135–149. [Google Scholar]
  69. Lockman Y, Vardy D, Ohayon D, el–On J. 1991. The failure of traditionally used desert plants to act against cutaneous leishmaniasis in experimental animals. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 85, 499–501. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  70. Lozano R, Naghavi M, Foreman K, Lim S, Shibuya K, Aboyans V, Abraham J, Adair T, Aggarwal R, Ahn SY, AlMazroa MA, Alvarado M, Anderson HR, Anderson LM, Andrews KG, Atkinson C, Baddour LM, Barker-Collo S, Bartels DH, Bell ML, Benjamin EJ, Bennett D, Bhalla K, Bikbov B, Abdulhak A Bin, Birbeck G, Blyth F, Bolliger I, Boufous S, Bucello C, Burch M, Burney P, Carapetis J, Chen H, Chou D, Chugh SS, Coffeng LE, Colan SD, Colquhoun S, Colson KE, Condon J, Connor MD, Cooper LT, Corriere M, Cortinovis M, de Vaccaro KC, Couser W, Cowie BC, Criqui MH, Cross M, Dabhadkar KC, Dahodwala N, De Leo D, Degenhardt L, Delossantos A, Denenberg J, Des Jarlais DC, Dharmaratne SD, Dorsey ER, Driscoll T, Duber H, Ebel B, Erwin PJ, Espindola P, Ezzati M, Feigin V, Flaxman AD, Forouzanfar MH, Fowkes FGR, Franklin R, Fransen M, Freeman MK, Gabriel SE, Gakidou E, Gaspari F, Gillum RF, Gonzalez-Medina D, Halasa YA, Haring D, Harrison JE, Havmoeller R, Hay RJ, Hoen B, Hotez PJ, Hoy D, Jacobsen KH, James SL, Jasrasaria R, Jayaraman S, Johns N, Karthikeyan G, Kassebaum N, Keren A, Khoo J-P, Knowlton LM, Kobusingye O, Koranteng A, Krishnamurthi R, Lipnick M, Lipshultz SE, Ohno SL, Mabweijano J, MacIntyre MF, Mallinger L, March L, Marks GB, Marks R, Matsumori A, Matzopoulos R, Mayosi BM, McAnulty JH, McDermott MM, McGrath J, Memish ZA, Mensah GA, Merriman TR, Michaud C, Miller M, Miller TR, Mock C, Mocumbi AO, Mokdad AA, Moran A, Mulholland K, Nair MN, Naldi L, Narayan KMV, Nasseri K, Norman P, O’Donnell M, Omer SB, Ortblad K, Osborne R, Ozgediz D, Pahari B, Pandian JD, Rivero AP, Padilla RP, Perez-Ruiz F, Perico N, Phillips D, Pierce K, Pope CA, Porrini E, Pourmalek F, Raju M, Ranganathan D, Rehm JT, Rein DB, Remuzzi G, Rivara FP, Roberts T, De León FR, Rosenfeld LC, Rushton L, Sacco RL, Salomon JA, Sampson U, Sanman E, Schwebel DC, Segui-Gomez M, Shepard DS, Singh D, Singleton J, Sliwa K, Smith E, Steer A, Taylor JA, Thomas B, Tleyjeh IM, Towbin JA, Truelsen T, Undurraga EA, Venketasubramanian N, Vijayakumar L, Vos T, Wagner GR, Wang M, Wang W, Watt K, Weinstock MA, Weintraub R, Wilkinson JD, Woolf AD, Wulf S, Yeh P-H, Yip P, Zabetian A, Zheng Z-J, Lopez AD, Murray CJ. 2012. Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study 2010. Lancet, 380, 2095–2128. [Google Scholar]
  71. Mahajan NG, Chopda MZ, Mahajan RT. 2015. A review on Sphaeranthus indicus Linn: Multipotential medicinal plant. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Allied Sciences, 4, 48–74. [Google Scholar]
  72. Maldonado EM, Salamanca E, Giménez A, Saavedra G, Sterner O. 2014. Antileishmanial metabolites from Trixis antimenorrhoea. Phytochemistry Letters, 10, 281–286. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  73. Martín T, Villaescusa L, Gasquet M, Delmas F, Bartolomé C, Díaz-Lanza AM, Ollivier E, Balansard G. 1998. Screening for protozoocidal activity of Spanish plants. Pharmaceutical Biology, 36, 56–62. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  74. Martínez-Díaz RA, Ibáñez-Escribano A, Burillo J, De Las Heras L, Del Prado G, Agulló-Ortuño MT, Julio LF, González-Coloma A. 2015. Trypanocidal, trichomonacidal and cytotoxic components of cultivated Artemisia absinthium Linnaeus (Asteraceae) essential oil. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 110, 693–699. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  75. Martín-Quintal Z, Moo-Puc R, González-Salazar F, Chan-Bacab MJ, Torres-Tapia LW, Peraza-Sánchez SR. 2009. In vitro activity of Tridax procumbens against promastigotes of Leishmania mexicana. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 122, 463–467. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  76. Martio-Quintal Z, del Rosario Garcia-Miss M, Mut-Martin M, Matus-Moo A, Torres-Tapia LW, Peraza-Sanchez SR. 2009. The leishmanicidal effect of (3 S)–16, 17–didehydrofalcarinol, an oxylipin isolated from Tridax procumbens, is independent of NO production. Phytotherapy Research, 24, 1004–1008. [Google Scholar]
  77. McChesney JD, Venkataraman SK, Henri JT. 2007. Plant natural products: Back to the future or into extinction? Phytochemistry, 68, 2015–2022. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  78. Mead JR, McNair N. 2006. Antiparasitic activity of flavonoids and isoflavones against Cryptosporidium parvum and Encephalitozoon intestinalis. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 259, 153–157. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  79. Meckes M, Calzada F, Tapia-Contreras A, Cedillo-Rivera R. 1999. Antiprotozoal properties of Helianthemum glomeratum. Phytotherapy Research, 13, 102–105. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  80. Mishra P, Kumar Mishra S, lacera Pratibha Mishra BD, Irchhiaya R. 2015. Phytochemical investigation and spectral studies of isolated flavonoid from ethanolic extract of whole plant. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 4, 1–4. [Google Scholar]
  81. Mohanty N, Panda T, Sahoo S, Rath SP. 2015. Herbal folk remedies of Dhenkanal district, Odisha, India. International Journal of Herbal Medicine, 3, 24–33. [Google Scholar]
  82. Mokoka T, Zimmermann S, Julianti T, Hata Y, Moodley N, Cal M, Adams M, Kaiser M, Brun R, Koorbanally N, Hamburger M. 2011. In vitro screening of traditional South African malaria remedies against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania donovani and Plasmodium falciparum. Planta Medica, 77, 1663–1667. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  83. Morais TR, Romoff P, Fávero OA, Reimão JQ, Lourenço WC, Tempone AG, Hristov AD, Di Santi SM, Lago JHG, Sartorelli P, Ferreira MJP. 2012. Anti-malarial, anti-trypanosomal, and anti-leishmanial activities of jacaranone isolated from Pentacalia desiderabilis (Vell.) Cuatrec. (Asteraceae). Parasitology Research, 110, 95–101. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  84. Moshi MJ, Otieno DF, Mbabazi PK, Weisheit A. 2010. Ethnomedicine of the Kagera Region, North Western Tanzania. Part 2: The medicinal plants used in Katoro Ward, Bukoba District. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 6, 19. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  85. Moyo P, Botha ME, Nondaba S, Niemand J, Maharaj VJ, Eloff JN, Louw AI, Birkholtz L. 2016. In vitro inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum early and late stage gametocyte viability by extracts from eight traditionally used South African plant species. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 185, 235–242. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  86. Mujtaba Shah G, Abbasi AM, Khan N, Guo X, Ajab Khan M, Hussain M, Bibi S, Nazir A, Ahmad Tahir A. 2014. Traditional uses of medicinal plants against malarial disease by the tribal communities of Lesser Himalayas–Pakistan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 155, 450–462. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  87. Muley B, Khadabadi S, Banarase N. 2009. Phytochemical constituents and pharmacological activities of Calendula officinalis Linn (Asteraceae): A review. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 8, 455–465. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  88. Murray CJL, Rosenfeld LC, Lim SS, Andrews KG, Foreman KJ, Haring D, Fullman N, Naghavi M, Lozano R, Lopez AD. 2012. Global malaria mortality between 1980 and 2010: a systematic analysis. Lancet, 379, 413–431. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  89. Musayeib N, Mothana R, Gamal A, Al-Massarani S, Maes L. 2013. In vitro antiprotozoal activity of triterpenoid constituents of Kleinia Odora growing in Saudi Arabia. Molecules, 18, 9207–9218. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  90. Muthaura CN, Keriko JM, Mutai C, Yenesew A, Gathirwa JW, Irungu BN, Nyangacha R, Mungai GM, Derese S. 2015. Antiplasmodial potential of traditional antimalarial phytotherapy remedies used by the Kwale community of the Kenyan Coast. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 170, 148–157. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  91. Ndjakou Lenta B, Devkota KP, Ngouela S, Fekam Boyom F, Naz Q, Choudhary MI, Tsamo E, Rosenthal PJ, Sewald N. 2008. Anti–plasmodial and cholinesterase inhibiting activities of some constituents of Psorospermum glaberrimum. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 56, 222–226. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  92. Newman DJ, Cragg GM. 2016. Natural products as sources of new drugs from 1981 to 2014. Journal of Natural Products, 79, 629–661. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  93. Niaz S, Akhtar T, Shams S, AbdEl-Salam NM, Ayaz S, Ullah R, Bibi S, Hussain I, Ahmad S. 2015. Treatment of bovine schistosomiasis with medicinal plant, Veronia anthelmintica (Kaliziri), an alternative approach. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 12S, 78-83. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  94. Nibret E, Wink M. 2010. Volatile components of four Ethiopian Artemisia species extracts and their In vitro antitrypanosomal and cytotoxic activities. Phytomedicine, 17, 369–374. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  95. Nikmehr B, Ghaznavi H, Rahbar A, Sadr S, Mehrzadi S. 2014. In vitro anti–leishmanial activity of methanolic extracts of Calendula officinalis flowers, Datura stramonium seeds, and Salvia officinalis leaves. Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines, 12, 423–427. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  96. Nisha M, Kalyanasundaram M, Paily KP, Abidha, Vanamail P, Balaraman K. 2006. In vitro screening of medicinal plant extracts for macrofilaricidal activity. Parasitology Research, 100, 575–579. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  97. Nour A, Khalid S, Abdallah W, Kaiser M, Brun R, Schmidt T. 2006. Trypanocidal flavonoids from Ageratum conyzoides. Planta Medica, 72, P_073. [Google Scholar]
  98. Nour AMM, Khalid SA, Kaiser M, Brun R, Abdalla WE, Schmidt TJ. 2010. The antiprotozoal activity of methylated flavonoids from Ageratum conyzoides L. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 129, 127–130. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  99. Nweze N, Anene B, Asuzu I. 2011. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10, 15626–15632. [Google Scholar]
  100. Ohigashi H, Huffman MA, Izutsu D, Koshimizu K, Kawanaka M, Sugiyama H, Kirby GC, Warhurst DC, Allen D, Wright CW, David Phillipson J, Timon-David P, Delmas F, Elias R, Balansard G. 1994. Toward the chemical ecology of medicinal plant use in chimpanzees: The case of Vernonia amygdalina, a plant used by wild chimpanzees possibly for parasite–related diseases. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 20, 541–553. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  101. Oketch-Rabah HA, Lemmich E, Dossaji SF, Theander TG, Olsen CE, Cornett IC, Arsalan KV, Christensen SV. 1997. Two new antiprotozoal 5-Methylcoumarins from Vernonia brachycalyx. Journal of Natural Products, 60, 458–461. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  102. Oliveira F, Andrade-Neto V, Krettli A, Brandão MG. 2004. New evidences of antimalarial activity of Bidens pilosa roots extract correlated with polyacetylene and flavonoids. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 93, 39–42. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  103. Olukunle JO, Jacobs EB, Oyewusi JA, Durotoye LA. 2015. Effects of aqueous leaf extract of Tithonia diversifolia (Mexican Sunflower) on semen characteristic and morphology in male Wistar albino rats. Nigerian Journal of Animal Production, 42, 263–270. [Google Scholar]
  104. Oryan A, Akbari M. 2016. Worldwide risk factors in leishmaniasis. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, 9, 925–932. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  105. Oudhia P, Tripathi RS. 1974. A useful weed Blumea lacera L. − A review. Indian Journal of Weed Science, 31, 108–109. [Google Scholar]
  106. Palacios Landín J, Mendoza de Gives P, Salinas Sánchez DO, López Arellano ME, Liébano Hernández E, Hernández Velázquez VM, Valladares Cisneros MG. 2016. In vitro and in vivo nematocidal activity of Allium sativum and Tagetes erecta extracts against Haemonchus contortus. Turkish Journal of Parasitology, 39, 260–264. [Google Scholar]
  107. Panda A, Misra MK. 2011. Ethnomedicinal survey of some wetland plants of South Orissa and their conservation. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 10, 296–303. [Google Scholar]
  108. Panda SK, Das D, Tripthathy NK. 2015. Phytochemical investigation and anthelmintic activity of various root extracts of Gmelina arborea. Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research, 5, 54–58. [Google Scholar]
  109. Panda SK, Mohanta YK, Padhi L, Park Y-H., Mohanta TK, Bae H. 2016. Large scale screening of ethnomedicinal plants for identification of potential antibacterial compounds. Molecules, 21, 293. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  110. Panda SK, Padhi L, Leyssen P, Liu M, Neyts J, Luyten W. 2017. Antimicrobial, anthelmintic and antiviral activity of plants traditionally used for treating infectious disease in the Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Odisha, India. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 8, 658. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  111. Panda SK, Rout SD, Mishra N, Panda T. 2011. Phytotherapy and traditional knowledge of tribal communities of Mayurbhanj district, Orissa, India. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy, 3, 101–113. [Google Scholar]
  112. Panda SK. 2014. Ethno-medicinal uses and screening of plants for antibacterial activity from Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Odisha, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 151, 158–175. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  113. Pani M, Nahak G, Sahu RK. 2014. Review on ethnomedicinal plants of Odisha for the treatment of malaria. International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research, 7, 156–165. [Google Scholar]
  114. Parnham MJ. 1996. Benefit-risk assessment of the squeezed sap of the purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea) for long-term oral immunostimulation. Phytomedicine, 3, 95–102. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  115. Parveen S, Godara R, Katoch R, Yadav A, Verma PK, Katoch M, Singh NK. 2014. In vitro evaluation of ethanolic extracts of Ageratum conyzoides and Artemisia absinthium against cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. Scientific World Journal, 858973. [Google Scholar]
  116. Passero LFD, Bonfim-Melo A, Corbett CEP, Laurenti MD, Toyama MH, de Toyama DO, Romoff P, Fávero OA, dos Grecco SS, Zalewsky CA, Lago JHG. 2011. Anti-leishmanial effects of purified compounds from aerial parts of Baccharis uncinella C. DC. (Asteraceae). Parasitology Research, 108, 529–536. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  117. Pattanaik C, Reddy C, Dhal N. 2008. Phytomedicinal study of coastal sand dune species of Orissa. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 7, 263–268. [Google Scholar]
  118. Pattanayak B, Dhal NK, Parida S. 2016. Ethnobotanical survey of antimalarial plants of Odisha, India. Asian Journal of Science and Technology, 7, 2529–2536. [Google Scholar]
  119. Pattewar AM, Dawalbaje AB, Gundale DM, Pawar PB, Kavtikwar PG, Yerawar PP, Pandharkar TM, Patawar VA. 2012. Phytochemistry and anthelmintic studies on Blumea lacera. Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2, 390–396. [Google Scholar]
  120. Pattnaik A, Sarkar R, Sharma A, Yadav KK, Kumar A, Roy P, Mazumder A, Karmakar S, Sen T. 2013. Pharmacological studies on Buchanania lanzan Spreng. A focus on wound healing with particular reference to anti-biofilm properties. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 3, 967–974. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  121. Pedersen MM, Chukwujekwu JC, Lategan CA, Staden J van, Smith PJ, Staerk D. 2009. Antimalarial sesquiterpene lactones from Distephanus angulifolius. Phytochemistry, 70, 601–607. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  122. Pérez-Victoria JM, Chiquero MJ, Conseil G, Dayan G, Di Pietro A, Barron D, Castanys S, Gamarro F. 1999. Correlation between the affinity of flavonoids binding to the cytosolic site of Leishmania tropica multidrug transporter and their efficiency to revert parasite resistance to Daunomycin. Biochemistry, 38, 1736–1743. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  123. Picman AK, Rodriguez E, Towers GH. 1979. Formation of adducts of parthenin and related sesquiterpene lactones with cysteine and glutathione. Chemico-biological Interactions, 28, 83–89. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  124. Pink R, Hudson A, Mouriès MA, Bendig M. 2005. Opportunities and challenges in antiparasitic drug discovery. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, 4, 727–740. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  125. Ramachandran S. 2013. Review on Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (Koṭṭaikkarantai). Pharmacognosy Reviews, 7, 157–169. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  126. Ramawat KG, Goyal S. 2008. The Indian herbal drugs scenario in global perspectives, in Bioactive molecules and medicinal plants, Ramawat K, Merillon J, Editors. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, p. 325–347. [Google Scholar]
  127. Reale S, Pace L, Monti P, Angelis F De Marcozzi G. 2008. A rapid method for the quantification of artemisinin in Artemisia annua L. plants cultivated for the first time in Burundi. Natural Product Research, 22, 360–364. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  128. Rodriguez E, Aregullin M, Nishida T, Uehara S, Wrangham R, Abramowski Z, Finlayson A, Towers GH. 1985. Thiarubrine A, a bioactive constituent of Aspilia (Asteraceae) consumed by wild chimpanzees. Experientia, 41, 419–420. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  129. Rodríguez–Chávez JL, Rufino–González Y, Ponce–Macotela M, Delgado G. 2015. In vitro activity of “Mexican Arnica” Heterotheca inuloides Cass natural products and some derivatives against Giardia intestinalis. Parasitology, 142, 576–584. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  130. Rout SD, Panda SK. 2010. Ethnomedicinal plant resources of Mayurbhanj district, Orissa. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 9, 68–72. [Google Scholar]
  131. Saini A, Kumar Soni H, Gupta P. 2016. A Review on Tridax procumbens. Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research, 2, 308–319. [Google Scholar]
  132. Sangsopha W, Lekphrom R, Kanokmedhakul S, Kanokmedhakul K. 2016. Cytotoxic and antimalarial constituents from aerial parts of Sphaeranthus indicus. Phytochemistry Letters, 17, 278–281. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  133. Saslis-Lagoudakis CH, Savolainen V, Williamson EM, Forest F, Wagstaff SJ, Baral SR, Watson MF, Pendry CA, Hawkins JA. 2012. Phylogenies reveal predictive power of traditional medicine in bioprospecting. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109, 15835–15840. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  134. Sharma S, Jalalpure SS, Bhupesh S, Shruti T, Agarwal N. 2011. Anthelminitic activity of the whole plant of Sphaeranthus indius. International Journal of Ayurvedic and Herbal Medicine, 1, 14–21. [Google Scholar]
  135. Shetty LJ, Sakr FM, Al-Obaidy K, Patel MJ, Shareef H. 2015. A brief review on medicinal plant Tagetes erecta Linn A. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 5, 91–95. [Google Scholar]
  136. Shukla AN, Rawat AKS. 2010. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants of Rewa district, Madhya Pradesh. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 9, 191–202. [Google Scholar]
  137. Silveira N, Saar J, Santos A, Barison A, Sandjo L, Kaiser M, Schmidt T, Biavatti M. 2016. A new alkamide with an endoperoxide structure from Acmella ciliata (Asteraceae) and its In vitro antiplasmodial activity. Molecules, 21, 765. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  138. Singh SK, Bimal S, Narayan S, Jee C, Bimal D, Das P, Bimal R. 2011. Leishmania donovani: Assessment of leishmanicidal effects of herbal extracts obtained from plants in the visceral leishmaniasis endemic area of Bihar, India. Experimental Parasitology, 127, 552–558. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  139. Sirama V, Kokwaro JOwuar B, Yusuf A. 2014. In vitro anthelmintic bioactivity study of Eclipta prostrata L. (whole plant) using adult Haemonchus contortus worms: A case study of Migori County, Kenya. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences Ver, 9, 45–53. [Google Scholar]
  140. Soejarto DD, Fong HHS, Tan GT, Zhang HJ, Ma CY, Franzblau SG, Gyllenhaal C, Riley MC, Kadushin MR, Pezzuto JM, Xuan LT, Hiep NT, Hung NV, Vu BM, Loc PK, Dac LX, Binh LT, Chien NQ, Hai NV, Bich TQ, Cuong NM, Southavong B, Sydara K, Bouamanivong S, Ly HM, Thuy TV, Rose WC, Dietzman GR. 2005. Ethnobotany/ethnopharmacology and mass bioprospecting: Issues on intellectual property and benefit-sharing. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 100, 15–22. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  141. Steele JCP, Warhurst DC, Kirby GC, Simmonds MSJ. 1999. In vitro and In vivo evaluation of betulinic acid as an antimalarial. Phytotherapy Research, 13, 115–119. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  142. Subhuti D. 2000. Bidens: A popular remedy escapes notice of Western Practitioners. ITM, India. [Google Scholar]
  143. Sülsen VP, Puente V, Papademetrio D, Batlle A, Martino VS, Frank FM, Lombardo ME. 2016. Mode of action of the sesquiterpene lactones psilostachyin and psilostachyin C on Trypanosoma cruzi. Plos One, 11, e0150526. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  144. Sutherland CJ, Tanomsing N, Nolder D, Oguike M, Jennison C, Pukrittayakamee S, Dolecek C, Hien TT, do Rosário VE, Arez AP, Pinto J, Michon P, Escalante AA, Nosten F, Burke M, Lee R, Blaze M, Otto TD, Barnwell JW, Pain A, Williams J, White NJ, Day NPJ, Snounou G, Lockhart PJ, Chiodini PL, Imwong M, Polley SD. 2010. Two nonrecombining sympatric forms of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium ovale occur globally. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 201, 1544–1550. [Google Scholar]
  145. Szakiel A, Ruszkowski D, Grudniak A, Kurek A, Wolska K, Doligalska M, Janiszowska W. 2008. Antibacterial and antiparasitic activity of oleanolic acid and its glycosides isolated from marigold (Calendula officinalis). Planta Medica, 74, 1709–1715. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  146. Takahashi HT, Novello CR, Ueda-Nakamura T, Filho BPD, Palazzo de Mello JC, Nakamura CV. 2011. Thiophene derivatives with antileishmanial activity isolated from aerial parts of Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.). Cass. Molecules, 16, 3469–3478. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  147. Talakal TS, Dwivedi SK, Sharma SR. 1995. In vitro and In vivo antitrypanosomal activity of Xanthium strumarium leaves. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 49, 141–145. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  148. Tasdemir D, Kaiser M, Brun R, Yardley V, Schmidt TJ, Tosun F, Ruedi P. 2006. Antitrypanosomal and antileishmanial activities of flavonoids and their analogues: In vitro, In vivo, structure-activity relationship, and quantitative structure-activity relationship studies. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 50, 1352–1364. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  149. Teixeira TL, Teixeira SC, Silva CV da, Souza MA de. 2014. Potential therapeutic use of herbal extracts in trypanosomiasis. Pathogens and Global Health, 108, 30–36. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  150. Tiuman TS, Ueda-Nakamura T, Garcia Cortez DA, Dias Filho BP, Morgado-Díaz JA, de Souza W, Nakamura CV. 2005. Antileishmanial activity of parthenolide, a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Tanacetum parthenium. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 49, 176–182. [Google Scholar]
  151. Tobinaga S, Sharma M, Aalbersberg W, Watanabe K, Iguchi K, Narui K, Sasatsu M, Waki S. 2009. Isolation and identification of a potent antimalarial and antibacterial polyacetylene from Bidens pilosa. Planta Medica, 75, 624–628. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  152. Toyang NJ, Verpoorte R. 2013. A review of the medicinal potentials of plants of the genus Vernonia (Asteraceae). Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 146, 681–723. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  153. Tran Q Le Tezuka Y, Ueda J, Nguyen NT, Maruyama Y, Begum K, Kim H-S, Wataya Y, Tran QK, Kadota S. 2003. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of antimalarial medicinal plants used in Vietnamese traditional medicine. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 86, 249–252. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  154. Ullah M, Khan MU, Mahmood A, Malik RN, Hussain M, Wazir SM, Daud M, Shinwari ZK. 2013. An ethnobotanical survey of indigenous medicinal plants in Wana district South Waziristan agency, Pakistan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 150, 918–924. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  155. Upadhayay N. 2013. Phytosociological documentation of traditional knowledge of Barleria acanthoides Vahl. International Journal of Science and Research, 5, 1188–1191. [Google Scholar]
  156. Villaescusa L, Diaz AM, Martin T, Gasquet M, Delmas F, Balansard G. 1996. Preliminary screening of antiprotozoal activity of Jasonia glutinosa aerial parts. Pharmaceutical Biology, 34, 303–304. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  157. Wabo Pone J, Fossi Tankoua O, Yondo J, Komtangi MC, Mbida M, Bilong Bilong CF. 2011. The in vitro effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the leaves of Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae) on three life cycle stages of the parasitic nematode Heligmosomoides bakeri (Nematoda: Heligmosomatidae). Veterinary Medicine International. 140293. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  158. Wang G, Han J, Feng T, Li F, Zhu B. 2009. Bioassay-guided isolation and identification of active compounds from Fructus arctii against Dactylogyrus intermedius (Monogenea) in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Parasitology Research, 106, 247–255. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  159. Wanzala W, Takken W, Mukabana WR, Pala AO, Hassanali A. 2012. Ethnoknowledge of Bukusu community on livestock tick prevention and control in Bungoma district, Western Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 140, 298–324. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  160. Williams AR, Peña-Espinoza MA, Boas U, Simonsen HT, Enemark HL, Thamsborg SM. 2016. Anthelmintic activity of chicory (Cichorium intybus): In vitro effects on swine nematodes and relationship to sesquiterpene lactone composition. Parasitology, 143, 770–777. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  161. Yamamoto ES, Campos BL, Laurenti MD, Lago JH, dos Santos Grecco S, Corbett CE, Passero LF. 2014. Treatment with triterpenic fraction purified from Baccharis uncinella leaves inhibits Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis spreading and improves Th1 immune response in infected mice. Parasitology Research, 13, 333–339. [Google Scholar]
  162. Yamamoto ES, Campos BLS, Jesus JA, Laurenti MD, Ribeiro SP, Kallás EG, Rafael-Fernandes M, Santos-Gomes G, Silva MS, Sessa DP, Lago JHG, Levy D, Passero LFD. 2015. The effect of ursolic acid on Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis is related to programed cell death and presents therapeutic potential in experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis. PLoS One, 10, e 0144946. [Google Scholar]
  163. Yildiz K, Basalan M, Duru O, Gokpinar S. 2011. Antiparasitic efficiency of Artemisia absinthium on Toxocara cati in naturally infected cats. Turkish Journal of Parasitology, 35, 10–14. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  164. Yu HW, Wright CW, Cai Y, Yang SL, Phillipson JD, Kirby GC, Warhurst DC. 1994. Antiprotozoal activities of Centipeda minima. Phytotherapy Research, 8, 436–438. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  165. Zahari Z, Jani NA, Amanah A, Latif MNA, Majid MIA, Adenan MI. Bioassay-guided isolation of a sesquiterpene lactone of deoxyelephantopin from Elephantopus scaber Linn. active on Trypanosome brucei rhodesience. Phytomedicine, 21, 282–285. [Google Scholar]
  166. Zhu F, Qin C, Tao L, Liu X, Shi Z, Ma X, Jia J, Tan Y, Cui C, Lin J, Tan C, Jiang Y, Chen Y. 2011. Clustered patterns of species origins of nature-derived drugs and clues for future bioprospecting. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108, 12943–12948. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.

Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.

Initial download of the metrics may take a while.