Open Access
Review Article

Table 1

Features of the studies included in the qualitative analysis regarding T. callipaeda infection in companion animals in Europe.

References
Sample
Clinical aspects
Country Authors/year Species No. of affected animals Affected eye Ocular signs
Austria Hodžić et al. [29] Cat 1 Right Conjunctival edema
Conjunctival hyperemia
Serous discharge
Belgium Caron et al. [9] Doga 2 Left Conjunctivitis
Follicular hyperplasia of the 3rd eyelid
Purulent discharge
Bosnia and Herzegovina Hodžić et al. [28] Cat 1 Left Conjunctival hyperemia
Dog 4 Unilateral or both Conjunctivitis
Bulgaria Colella et al. [10] Dog 9 NA Conjunctivitis
Epiphora
Croatia Hodžić et al. [28] Dog 2 NA Conjunctival hyperemia
Conjunctivitis
Czech Republic Jirků et al. [34] Dog 1 Right Purulent discharge
France Dorchies et al. [14] Cat 1 Left Chemosis
Conjunctivitis
Wound on the 3rd eyelid
Dog 4 NA Conjunctivitis
Franceb Ruytoor et al. [66] Cat 2 NA NA
Dog 115 NA NA
Germany Hermosilla et al. [27] Dogc 1 Right Conjunctivitis
Purulent discharge
Germany Schottstedt [68] Dog 1 Right Blepharospasm
Conjunctivitis
Keratitis
Purulent discharge
Germany Magnis et al. [38] Dog 1 Right Blepharospasm
Epiphora
Lacrimation
Germany Silva et al. [71] Catd 1 NA Epiphora
Mucoid discharge
Doge 2 Right Conjunctival hyperemia
Epiphora
Follicular conjunctivitis
Mucoid or mucopurulent discharge
Greece Diakou et al. [12] Dog 1 Both Conjunctival edema
Conjunctivitis
Epiphora
Keratitis
Mucoid discharge
Greece Papadopoulos et al. [60] Cat 3 NA Conjunctivitis
Dog 46 NA Anterior uveitis
Blepharitis
Conjunctivitis
Corneal abrasions
Indolent corneal ulcer
Mucoid or mucopurulent discharge
Rabbitf 1 NA Conjunctivitis
Mucoid discharge
Hungary Colella et al. [10] Dog 1 NA Conjunctivitis
Epiphora
Hungary Farkas et al. [18] Cat 1 Right Conjunctival hyperemia
Conjunctivitis
Purulent discharge
Dog 10 Both (6) Conjunctival hyperemia
Left (2) Conjunctivitis
Right (2) Purulent discharge
Moldova Dumitrache et al. [16] Dog 1 Right Conjunctivitis
Epiphora
Periocular alopecia
Periocular erosions
Portugal Pimenta et al. [63] Dog 1 Left Blepharospasm
Epiphora
Portugal Rodrigues et al. [64] Cat 1 Left Conjunctival edema
Conjunctivitis
Infra-orbital abscess
Portugal Vieira et al. [76] Dog 9 NA Conjunctivitis
Ocular discharge
Ocular pruritus
Portugal Soares et al. [72] Cat 1 Right Blepharospasm
Conjunctival edema
Photophobia
Purulent discharge
Romania Mihalca et al. [43] Dog 1 Right Conjunctivitis
Epiphora
Proliferative lesions inferior conjunctival sac
Romania Ioniţă et al. [33] Dog 2 Right Conjunctivitis
Epiphora
Mild lesions inferior conjunctival sac
Romania Tudor et al. [74] Dog 2 Right Conjunctivitis
Mucopurulent discharge
Both Blepharospasm
Romania Dumitrache et al. [15] Cat 1 Left Blepharospasm
Conjunctival edema
Mucopurulent discharge
Periocular alopecia
Periocular erosions
Photophobia
Dog 5 Both (2) Blepharitis
Right (1) Conjunctivitis
Left (2) Epiphora
Serbia Gajić et al. [21] Cat 2 Left Conjunctival edema
Conjunctival hyperemia
Dog 4 Both (2) Conjunctivitis
Left (2) Ocular discharge
Serbia Tasić-Otašević et al. [73] Dog 2 Unilateral Chemosis
Conjunctival hyperemia
Slovakia Čabanová et al. [8] Dog 4 Both (1) Conjunctivitis
Left (1) Epiphora
Right (2)
Spain Marino et al. [42] Dog 1001g NA Chemosis
Conjunctivitis
Corneal ulceration
Follicular conjunctivitis
Follicular hyperplasia of the 3rd eyelid Purulent discharge
Switzerland Malacrida et al. [40] Cat 5 NA Conjunctivitis
Epiphora
Dog 106h NA Conjunctivitis
Epiphora
Keratitis
Turkey Eser et al. [17] Dog 1 Left Conjunctivitis
Purulent discharge
United Kingdom Graham-Brown et al. [24] Dogi 3 Both (1) Conjunctival hyperemia
Left (1) Conjunctivitis
Corneal ulceration
Right (1) Increased blink rate
Serous discharge
United Kingdom Hammond [26] Dogj 1 Right Conjunctivitis

NA: Not available

a

The infections had been acquired in south western France and southern Italy.

b

Most cases (104/117) were diagnosed in the Dordogne department. Furthermore, most of the infected animals in the other regions had spent time in Dordogne a few months before clinical signs developed.

c

The dog had visited several parts of Italy for a few weeks before clinical signs developed.

d

The cat was imported from Southern Spain to West Germany (Freinshein).

e

One dog was imported from Kenya and the other was in close contact with several dogs from different countries at racing events, which took place in the Netherlands and Austria.

f

Oryctolagus cuniculus.

g

n = 11 autochthonous cases of dogs in 6 municipalities of Andorra.

h

Out of 95 Thelazia-positive dogs with known data about travel history, 40 had previously been to Italy (one year before diagnosis).

i

One dog had been imported to the UK from Hateg, Hunedoara county (western Romania) 6 weeks previously. The other dog had returned from travel to the Lombardy region (northern Italy). The third dog had spent 1 month at the Saint Avit Loisirs campsite, Dordogne department (France).

j

The dog presented unilateral conjunctivitis 1 month after returning from a 2-week stay in the Dordogne department (France).

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