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Table 3

Results of the X-ray microanalysis for elements present in the base of hooks of Neoechinorhynchus personatus from Mugil cephalus in two different geographical locations, the Mediterranean Sea off Tunisia and the Black Sea.

Mediterranean Sea off Tunisia Large anterior hook
Small posterior hook
Wt%* At%* Wt% At%
Phosphorus (P) 10.80 ** 7.65 4.84 ** 2.91
Sulfur (S) 3.10 2.12 6.94 4.03
Calcium (Ca)
Black Sea Large anterior hook
Small posterior hook
Wt% At% Wt% At%
Phosphorus (P) 8.54 6.2 2.69 2.12
Sulfur (S) 8.54 5.99 12.78 9.74
Calcium (Ca) 12.89 7.23 3.06 1.86

Weight percent (Wt%) and Atom percent (AT%) are based on a total of 100 percent. Note: C, H, O, N are common elements in all protoplasm. Pd (palladium) and Au (gold) are used to count the specimen before viewing, Ga (gallium) is used to make fine cuts (dual beam) of specimens.


See Figures 37 and 38 for EDXA spectra of bolded WT% of anterior and posterior hooks of N. personatus from the Mediterranean. Note that the levels of sulfur are about twice as high and the levels of calcium and phosphorous, relatively lower in all measurements (%) from specimens in the Black Sea than in those from the Mediterranean off Tunisia.

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