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Figure 1

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Visual of in vitro feeding process. (A) A 2 mL metal reservoir is assembled using Parafilm M, a rubber O-ring, and plastic plugs provided with the Hemotek apparatus. (B) The reservoir is filled with 2 mL of defibrinated rabbit blood using sterile technique and screwed into an inverted FU1 feeding unit. (C) A barrier cut from a plastic weighing boat is placed on top of the Parafilm membrane forming a gentle seal that prevents escape of the lice. (D) The rearing substrate harboring lice is placed directly on the feeding membrane after turning on the device to pre-warm for 2–3 min. (E) Within minutes, lice can be seen leaving the harborage and beginning to feed. By 30 min, feeding rates >90% are common. Many fed lice return to the harborage independently after engorging, but lice remaining on the membrane after feeding can be returned to the harborage by gently swabbing it over the membrane surface.

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