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Table 2

Predictors of persistent early-appearing anaemia in acutely malarious <5-year-old children following initiation of artemisinin-based combination treatments.

Variable Total no. No. with PEAA OR (95% CI) p value AOR (95% CI) p value
Gender
 Female 253 30 1
 Male 287 32 0.9 (0.5–1.6) 0.9
Age (month)
 >36 306 23 1 1
 ≤36 234 39 2.5 (1.4–4.3) 0.002 1.8 (0.5–4.3) 0.18
Duration of illness (day)
 >3 185 17 1 1
 ≤3 180 30 2.0 (1.0–3.7) 0.048 2.9 (1.1–7.4) 0.03
History of fever at presentation
 Absent 90 9 1
 Present 450 53 1.2 (0.6–2.5) 0.73
Temperature at presentation (°C)
 ≤37.4 192 22 1
 >37.4 348 40 1.0 (0.6–1.7) 1.0
History of fever on day 1
 Absent 446 55 1
 Present 94 7 0.6 (0.3–1.3) 0.24
Temperature on day 1 (°C)
 ≤37.4 480 55 1
 >37.4 60 7 1.0 (0.4–2.4) 1.0
Enrolment haematocrit (%)
 ≥35 181 9 1 1
 <35 359 53 3.3 (1.6–6.9) 0.001 4.6 (1.6–13.1) 0.005
Haematocrit on day 1 (%)
 ≥25 492 42 1 1
 <25 48 20 7.7 (4–14.7) <0.0001 3.5 (1.1–11.4) 0.03
DAFH (%)
 <6 333 17 1 1
 ≥6 207 45 5.2 (2.9–9.3) <0.0001 5.7 (2.1–15.5) 0.001
Enrolment parasitaemia (/μL)
 ≤75,000 454 45 1 1
 >75,000 86 17 2.2 (1.2–4.1) 0.02 1.3 (0.4–4.1) 0.65
Asexual parasitaemia on day 1
 Absent 209 24 1
 Present 331 38 1.0 (0.6–1.7) 1.0
Asexual parasitaemia on day 2
 Absent 422 51 1
 Present 118 11 0.7 (0.4–1.5) 0.5
Parasite clearance time (day)
 ≤2 418 51 1
 >2 122 11 0.7 (0.4–1.4) 0.42
Parasite reduction ratio on day 1
 ≤25,000 453 44 1
 >25,000 87 18 1.4 (0.8–2.6) 0.31
Parasite reduction ratio on day 2
 ≤25,000 339 31 1 1
 >25,000 201 31 1.8 (1.1–3.1) 0.04 1.2 (0.5–3.1) 0.7
Drug treatment
 AA 168 10 1 1
 AL 176 18 1.8 (0.8–4.0) 0.22
 DHP 196 34 3.3 (1.6–6.9) 0.002 4.3 (1.6–11.5) 0.004

DAFH, drug attributable fall in haematocrit; DHP, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine; AL, artemether-lumefantrine; AA, artesunate-amodiaquine; OR, odds ratio; AOR, adjusted odds ratio; PEAA, persistent early appearing anaemia.

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