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Table 6

Animal toxoplasmosis prevalence in North African countries.

Country (author) Region Population/sample Technique Positive/examined (%) Reference
Morocco (Benkirane et al., 1990) Rabat Sheep ELISA −(30) [28]
Morocco (Belbacha et al., 2004) Marrakech Sheep ELISA 15/50 (30) [24]
Morocco (Sawadogo et al., 2005) Marrakech Sheep ELISA 72/261 (27.6) [109]
Morocco (Benkirane et al., 2015) Northern Morocco and Middle Atlas Sheep ELISA 42/202 (20.8) [29]
Morocco (Benkirane et al., 2015) Northern Morocco and Middle Atlas Goats ELISA 9/106 (8.5) [29]
Algeria (Balozet, 1955) Algiers Dogs CFT 32/105 (30.5) [16]
Algeria (Dechicha et al., 2015) Blida Cattle IFAT 13/332 (3.9) [37]
Algeria (Dechicha et al., 2015) Djelfa Sheep IFAT 32/276 (11.6) [37]
Algeria (Dechicha et al., 2015) Djelfa Goats IFAT 14/106 (13.2) [37]
Algeria (Abdelhadi et al., 2015) Tiaret Cattle ELISA 14/92 (15.2) [2]
Algeria (Mohamed–Cherif et al., 2015) Tiaret Horses MAT 76/293 (25.9) [94]
Algeria (Mohamed–Cherif et al., 2015) Tiaret Donkeys MAT 9/30 (30) [94]
Algeria (Yekkour et al., 2017) Algiers Stray cats MAT 48/96 (50) [129]
Algeria (Dahmani et al., 2018) Western, Eastern and South Sheep ELISA 48/580 (8.3) [36]
Tunisia (Ben Rachid and Blaha, 1970) Sheep SFDT 169/225 (75.1) [30]
Tunisia (Ben Rachid and Blaha, 1970) Goats SFDT 51/85 (60) [30]
Tunisia (Ben Rachid and Blaha, 1970) Cattle SFDT 93/250 (37.2) [30]
Tunisia (Ben Rachid and Blaha, 1970) Cattle SFDT 16/100 (16) [30]
Tunisia (Ben Rachid and Blaha, 1970) Camels SFDT 48/120 (40) [30]
Tunisia (Ben Rachid and Blaha, 1970) Dogs SFDT 142/200 (71) [30]
Tunisia (Boughattas et al., 2011) Sidi Thabet, Monastir and Battan Horses MAT 28/158 (17.7) [33]
Tunisia (Gharbi et al., 2013) Ben Arous Sheep PCR 9/71 (12.7) [62]
Tunisia (Gharbi et al., 2013) Kasserine Sheep ELISA 35/184 (19) [62]
Tunisia (Gharbi et al., 2013) Sidi Bouzid Sheep PCR 27/106 (25.5) [62]
Tunisia (Gharbi et al., 2013) Siliana Sheep ELISA 3/166 (1.8) [62]
Tunisia (Khayeche et al., 2013) Sousse Sheep PCR 4/70 (5.7) [79]
Tunisia (Boughattas et al., 2014) Tunis Young sheep MAT 83/217 (38.2) [34]
Tunisia (Boughattas et al., 2014) Tunis Adult sheep MAT 92/125 (73.6) [34]
Tunisia (Lahmar et al., 2015) Gafsa Sheep MAT 82/204 (40.2) [86]
Tunisia (Lahmar et al., 2015) Gafsa Goats MAT 11/32 (34.4) [86]
Tunisia (Lahmar et al., 2015) Gafsa Cattle MAT 3/25 (12) [86]
Tunisia (Amairia et al., 2016) Tabarka Goats ELISA 17/34 (50) [9]
Tunisia (Amairia et al., 2016) Hammam Bourghiba Goats ELISA 7/43 (16.3) [9]
Tunisia (Amairia et al., 2016) Tabarka Goats’ milk PCR 0/34 [9]
Tunisia (Amairia et al., 2016) Hammam Bourghiba Goats’ milk PCR 6/43 (13.9) [9]
Tunisia (Rouatbi et al., 2017) Beja Sheep PCR 48/150 (32) [107]
Tunisia (Rouatbi et al., 2017) Sidi Bouzid Sheep PCR 54/174 (31) [107]
Tunisia (Amdouni et al., 2017) Beja Sheep PCR 50/150 (33.3) [10]
Tunisia (Amdouni et al., 2017) Beja Cattle PCR 29/150 (19.3) [10]
Tunisia (Amdouni et al., 2017) Beja Goats PCR 39/120 (32.5) [10]
Libya (Azwai et al., 1993) Goats IHAT −(50) [14]
Libya (Azwai et al., 1993) Sheep IHAT −(26.2) [14]
Libya (Azwai et al., 1993) Horses IHAT −(4.8) [14]
Libya (Azwai et al., 1993) An-Najila Cattle IHAT −(27.4) [14]
Libya (Azwai et al., 1993) Khadra’ Cattle IHAT −(14.3) [14]
Libya (Azwai et al., 1993) Al Hany Cattle IHAT −(10.6) [14]
Libya (El-Gomati et al., 2010) Tripoli Mice Toxocell latex test 21/60 (35) [49]
Libya (Al-mabruk et al., 2013) Western, Central, Eastern and Southern Sheep LATa 4122/5806 (71) [8]
Egypt (Rifaat et al., 1976) Cairo Chickens DTb 17/85 (20) [105]
Egypt (Rifaat et al., 1976) Cairo Rabbits DT 49/100 (49) [105]
Egypt (Ibrahim et al., 1997) Tanta Sheep IHAT 114/258 (44.2) [72]
Egypt (Ibrahim et al., 1997) Tanta Sheep IFAT 126/258 (48.8) [72]
Egypt (Hilali et al., 1998) Camels DATc 29/166 (17.5) [71]
Egypt (El-Ghaysh, 1998) Monofia Donkeys ELISA 79/121 (65.3) [48]
Egypt (Dubey et al., 2003) Giza Free range chickens MAT 49/121 (40.5) [42]
Egypt (Ghazy et al., 2007) Horses ELISA 160/420 (38.1) [63]
Egypt (Shaapan et al., 2008) Cairo Sheep MAT 131/300 (43.7) [112]
Egypt (Shaapan et al., 2008) Cairo Sheep ELISA 125/300 (41.7) [112]
Egypt (Shaapan et al., 2008) Cairo Sheep IFAT 111/300 (37) [112]
Egypt (Shaapan et al., 2008) Cairo Sheep DT 102/300 (34) [112]
Egypt (Ibrahim et al., 2009) Sharkia Cattle ELISA 10/93 (10.7) [73]
Egypt (Haridy et al., 2010) Cairo Working donkeys ELISA 45/100 (45) [69]
Egypt (Haridy et al., 2010) Cairo Donkeys’ milk ELISA 7/15 (46.7) [69]
Egypt (Ghoneim et al., 2010) El Fayoum Sheep ELISA 61/62 (98.4) [64]
Egypt (Ghoneim et al., 2010) El Fayoum Sheep PCR 42/62 (67.7) [64]
Egypt (Ghoneim et al., 2010) El Fayoum Goats ELISA 10/24 (41.7) [64]
Egypt (Ghoneim et al., 2010) El Fayoum Goats PCR 6/24 (25) [64]
Egypt (Harfoush and Tahoon, 2010) Kafr El-Sheikh Domestic ducks IHAT −(55) [68]
Egypt (Harfoush and Tahoon, 2010) Kafr El-Sheikh Free-range chickens IHAT −(38.1) [68]
Egypt (Harfoush and Tahoon, 2010) Kafr El-Sheikh Turkeys IHAT −(29.4) [68]
Egypt (Ashmawy et al., 2011; Harfoush and Tahoon, 2010) Kafr El-Sheikh Domestic rabbits IHAT −(17.5 to 37.5) [12, 68]
Egypt (Al-Kappany et al., 2011) Cairo Feral cats MAT 172/180 (95.5) [7]
Egypt (Ashmawy et al., 2011) Alexandria Domestic rabbits IHAT 9/85 (10.6) [12]
Egypt (Ashmawy et al., 2011) Behera Domestic rabbits IHAT 6/69 (8.7) [12]
Egypt (Barakat et al., 2012) Cairo Chickens ELISA −(62.2) [18]
Egypt (Barakat et al., 2012) Gharbia Chickens ELISA −(82.3) [18]
Egypt (Barakat et al., 2012) Kafr El sheikh Chickens ELISA −(67.1) [18]
Egypt (Barakat et al., 2012) Quena Chickens ELISA −(75) [18]
Egypt (Barakat et al., 2012) Sharkia Chickens ELISA −(59.5) [18]
Egypt (Barakat et al., 2012) Sohag Chickens ELISA −(50) [18]
Egypt (Behairy et al., 2013) Giza Turkeys MAT 103/173 (59.5) [45]
Egypt (Behairy et al., 2013) Giza Chickens MAT 51/108 (47.2) [45]
Egypt (Behairy et al., 2013) Giza Ducks MAT 24/48 (50) [45]
Egypt (El-Madawy and Metawea, 2013) Ismailia Ostriches ELISA 15/120 (12.5) [51]
Egypt (El-Madawy and Metawea, 2013) Ismailia Ostriches PCR 9/120 (7.5) [51]
Egypt (Behairy et al., 2013) Giza Dogs MAT 50/51 (98) [45]
Egypt (Behairy et al., 2013) Giza Hearts of dogs Bioassay 22/43 (51.2) [45]
Egypt (Ahmed et al., 2014) Sharkia Sheeps’ milk PCR 1/50 (2) [4]
Egypt (Ahmed et al., 2014) Sharkia Goats’ milk PCR 4/50 (8) [4]
Egypt (Ahmed et al., 2014) Sharkia Cows’ milk PCR 0/50 [4]
Egypt (Mahmoud et al., 2015) Gharbia Stray cats IHAT 17/92 (18.5) [90]
Egypt (Mahmoud et al., 2015) Gharbia Stray cats IFAT 19/92 (20.7) [90]
Egypt (Mahmoud et al., 2015) Gharbia Owned cats IHAT 4/32 (12.5) [90]
Egypt (Mahmoud et al., 2015) Gharbia Owned cats IFAT 5/32 (15.6) [90]
Egypt (Ibrahim et al., 2017) Menoufia Sheep ELISA −(51.04) [74]
Egypt (Ibrahim et al., 2017) Menoufia Sheep RT-PCR −(17.71) [74]
Egypt (Ibrahim et al., 2017) Gharbia Sheep ELISA −(52.70) [74]
Egypt (Ibrahim et al., 2017) Gharbia Sheep RT-PCR −(17.57) [74]
a

LAT: Latex Agglutination Test.

b

DT: Dye Test.

c

DAT: Direct Agglutination Test.

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