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Review Article

Table 5

Human toxoplasmosis prevalence in North African countries.

Country (author) Region Population/sample Technique Positive/examined (%) Reference
Morocco (Le Viguelloux and Epardeau, 1969) Patients IFATa 100/154 (64.9) [87]
Morocco (Nejmi and Alami, 1973) Rabat Military personnel, schoolgirls and pregnant women IFAT 281/1026 (27.4) [96]
Morocco (Biava et al., 1983) Marrakech Women IFAT/Hemagglutination 106/318 (33.3) [32]
Morocco (Guessous-Idrissi et al., 1984) Women −(51.5) [65]
Morocco (El Mansouri et al., 2007) Kenitra Pregnant women ELISAb −(36.7) [52]
Morocco (El Mansouri et al., 2007) Nador Pregnant women ELISA −(43.3) [52]
Morocco (El Mansouri et al., 2007) Tetouan Pregnant women ELISA −(42.6) [52]
Morocco (El Mansouri et al., 2007) Rabat Pregnant women ELISA 1242/2456 (50.6) [52]
Morocco (Laboudi et al., 2009) Rabat Pregnant women ELISA 516/1020(50.6) [85]
Morocco (Barkat et al., 2010) Rabat Pregnant women 163/368 (44.3) [17]
Morocco (Addebbous et al., 2012) Marrakesh HIV-infected adults Indirect ELISA 59/95 (62.1) [1]
Morocco (Laboudi et al., 2014) Rabat Pregnant women ELISA 549/1169 (47) [84]
Morocco (Laboudi, 2017) Rabat Pregnant women ELISA 59/128 (46.1) [83]
Morocco (Tlamcani et al., 2017) Fes Pregnant women CMIAc 1367/3440 (39.7) [121]
Algeria (Balozet, 1955) Algiers Humans CFTd 13/125 (10.4) [16]
Algeria (Schneider et al., 1977) Algiers Patients IFAT 1297/2438 (53.2) [110]
Algeria (Messserer et al., 2014) Annaba Pregnant women Microparticle enzyme 491/1028 (47.8) [93]
Algeria (Berredjem et al., 2017) Annaba Pregnant women ELISA 57/143 (39.9) [31]
Algeria (Berredjem et al., 2017) Annaba Pregnant women PCRe (B1 gene) 9/57 (15.8) [31]
Algeria (Berredjem et al., 2017) Annaba Pregnant women PCR (P30 gene) 4/14 (28.6) [31]
Tunisia (Ben Rachid and Blaha, 1970) Blind children SFDTf 19/92 (20.6) [30]
Tunisia (Ben Rachid and Blaha, 1970) Adolescents SFDT 18/30 (60) [30]
Tunisia (Messedi-Triki et al., 1982) Tunis 402/810 (49.6) [92]
Tunisia (Jemni et al., 1985) Sousse Students −(67) [75]
Tunisia (Bchir et al., 1992) Monastir Pregnant women ELISA 195/478 (40.8) [19]
Tunisia (Ben Ayed Nouira et al., 1994) Tunis Women −(63.5) [27]
Tunisia (Bouratbine et al., 2001) Beja Individuals ELISA and IFAT 830/1421 (58.4) [35]
Tunisia (Sellami et al., 2010) Sfax Pregnant women ELISA 15952/40567 (39.3) [111]
Tunisia (Ben Abdallah et al., 2013) Tunis Pregnant women ELISA 944/2070 (45.6) [26]
Tunisia (Fakhfakh et al., 2013) Tunis Pregnant women Immunocapture 1114/2351 (47.4) [56]
Tunisia (Siala et al., 2014) Tunis Amniotic fluid PCR 12/60 (20) [115]
Libya (Khadre and Nageh, 1987) Tripoli Adult males 1032/2000 (51.6) [78]
Libya (Khadre and Nageh, 1987) Tripoli Adult females 130/300 (43.3) [78]
Libya (Khadre and Nageh, 1987) Tripoli Schoolchildren 865/1980 (43.7) [78]
Libya (Khadre and Nageh, 1987) Tripoli Female patients with abortion history 1334/1921 (69.4) [78]
Libya (Kassem and Morsy, 1991) Benghazi Pregnant women IHATg 176/369 (47.7) [77]
Libya (Elsaid et al., 2014) Tripoli Control volunteers ELISA 3/300 (1) [53]
Libya (Elsaid et al., 2014) Tripoli Psychiatric patients ELISA 151/300 (50.3) [53]
Libya (Elsaid et al., 2014) Tripoli Control volunteers Latex 140/300 (46.7) [53]
Libya (Elsaid et al., 2014) Tripoli Psychiatric patients Latex 185/300 (61.7) [53]
Libya (Gamal and Jaroud, 2015) Alkhoms Pregnant women ELISA 142/361 (39.3) [60]
Libya (Shalaka et al., 2015) Tripoli Patients with HIV/AIDS 19/227 (8.4) [113]
Libya (Gashout et al., 2016) Tripoli Women who have had spontaneous abortions ELISA 54/140 (38.6) [61]
Libya (Gashout et al., 2016) Tripoli HIV patients ELISA 23/26 (88.5) [61]
Libya (Gashout et al., 2016) Sabrata Patients with leukemia or lymphoma ELISA 6/9 (66.7) [61]
Libya (Gashout et al., 2016) Zawia Children with ocular infection ELISA 1/2 (50) [61]
Libya (Haq et al., 2016) Misurata Pregnant women PCR 27/276 (9.8) [67]
Egypt (Azab et al., 1992) Serum of lactating women IFAT 22/70 (31.4) [13]
Egypt (Azab et al., 1992) Milk of lactating women IFAT 12/70 (17.1) [13]
Egypt (Youssef, 1993) Dakahlia Inhabitants Dot-ELISA −(23.8) [130]
Egypt (Ibrahim et al., 1997) Gharbia Workers IHAT 11/21 (52.4) [72]
Egypt (Ibrahim et al., 1997) Dakahlia Pregnant women ELISA 52/101 (51.5) [72]
Egypt (Amrei et al., 1999) Zagazig Children with intellectual disability 14/32 (43.7) [11]
Egypt (Amrei et al., 1999) Zagazig Adult females −(37.5) [11]
Egypt (Elsheikha et al., 2009) Mansoura Blood donors ELISA 155/260 (59.6) [54]
Egypt (El-Gozamy et al., 2009) Qualyobia Pregnant women ELISA 46.5 to 57.6 [50]
Egypt (Ghoneim et al., 2010) El Fayoum Pregnant women ELISA IgG 27/59 (45.8) [64]
Egypt (Ghoneim et al., 2010) El Fayoum Pregnant women ELISA IgM 18/59 (30.5) [64]
Egypt (Ghoneim et al., 2010) El Fayoum Pregnant women SFDT 14/ 59 (23.7) [64]
Egypt (Ghoneim et al., 2010) El Fayoum Pregnant women PCR 19/59 (33.2) [64]
Egypt (El Deeb et al., 2012) Menoufia Pregnant women ELFAh 218/323 (67.5) [47]
Egypt (Ahmed et al., 2014) Sharkia Pregnant women MATi 82/100 (82) [4]
Egypt (Kamal et al., 2015) Minia Women with high risk pregnancy ELISA 61/120 (50.8) [76]
Egypt (Ibrahim et al., 2017) Menoufia Pregnant women ELISA 63/171 (36.8) [74]
Egypt (Ibrahim et al., 2017) Menoufia Pregnant women RT-PCRj 24/171 (14) [74]
Egypt (Ibrahim et al., 2017) Gharbia Pregnant women ELISA 60/193 (31.1) [74]
Egypt (Ibrahim et al., 2017) Gharbia Pregnant women RT-PCR 19/193 (9.8) [74]
a

IFAT: ImmunoFluorescent Antibody Test.

b

ELISA: Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay.

c

CMIA: Chemiluminescent Microparticle Immunoassay

d

CFT: Complement-Fixation Test.

e

PCR: Polymerase Chain Reaction.

f

SFDT: Sabin-Feldman Dye Test.

g

IHAT: Indirect Hemagglutination Antibody test.

h

ELFA: Enzyme-Linked Fluorescence Assay.

i

MAT: Modified Agglutination Test.

j

RT-PCR: Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction.

– : Not Available.

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