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Table 1.

Characteristics of the studies included in the meta-analysis

No. Study region Study period Integrated interventions targeting control of infectious sources Study measurements References
1 Anhui province 2002–2003 Replacement of cattle with machines, improvement of sanitation, and building lavatories and latrines Human S. japonicum infection and snail infection [61]
2 Mountainous regions of Yunnan province 2006–2007 Improvement of sanitation, and building lavatories and latrines and prohibition of grazing cattle in the grasslands Human S. japonicum infection and snail infection [27]
3 Poyang Lake region 2005–2007 Removing cattle from snail-infested grasslands, providing farmers with mechanized farm equipment, improving sanitation by supplying tap water and building lavatories and latrines, providing boats with fecal matter containers, and implementing an intensive health education program Human S. japonicum infection and snail infection [42]
4 Four provinces of Anhui, Hubei, Hunan and Jiangxi 2005–2008 Removing cattle from snail-infested grasslands, providing farmers with mechanized farm equipment, improving sanitation by supplying tap water and building lavatories and latrines, providing boats with fecal matter containers, and implementing an intensive health education program Human S. japonicum infection and snail infection [43]
5 Xuancheng city of Anhui province 2006–2007 Replacement of cattle with machines, improvement of sanitation, and building lavatories and latrines Human S. japonicum infection and snail infection [59]
6 Jingzhou city of Hubei province 2010–2011 Replacement of cattle with machines, and prohibition of grazing cattle in the grasslands Human S. japonicum infection and snail infection [25]
7 Gong’an county of Hubei province 2009–2011 Building fences to limit the grazing area for cattle, building safe pastures for grazing, improving the residents’ health conditions and facilities Human S. japonicum infection and snail infection [15]
8 Jinxian county along Poyang Lake region 2004–2005 Grazing and marshland isolation, replacing cattle with tractors, and improving access to water and sanitation facilities Human S. japonicum infection and snail infection [60]

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