Open Access
Review Article

Table 4

Selected flavonoids and terpenoids (whose presence has been reported in plants of the Asteraceae family) with antiparasitic activity

Flavonoids Organism tested Concentration/dose IC50 References
Four polyoxygenated flavonoids Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense C1: 16 μM, C2: 18 μM, C3: 21 μM and C4: 11 μM [97]
5,6,7,8,5-Pentamethoxy-3,4-methylenedioxy flavone Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense; Tb: 6.67 μg/mL [98]
  Trypanosoma cruzi; Tc- > 30 μg/mL  
  Leishmania donovani and Ld: > 30 μg/mL  
  Plasmodium falciparum Pf: 4.57 μg/mL  
5,6,7,5-Tetramethoxy-3,4-methylenedioxyflavone Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense; Tb: 7.29 μg/mL [98]
  Trypanosoma cruzi; Tc: 19.5 μg/mL  
  Leishmania donovani and Ld: > 30 μg/mL  
  Plasmodium falciparum Pf: 4.26 μg/mL  
5,6,7,8,3,4,5-Hepta-methoxyflavone Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense; Tb: 4.76 μg/mL [98]
  Trypanosoma cruzi; Tc; 26.4 μg/mL  
  Leishmania donovani and Ld: 5.29 μg/mL  
  Plasmodium falciparum Pf: > 5 μg/mL  
5,6,7,3,4,5-Hexamethoxyflavone Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense; Tb: 8.58 μg/mL [98]
  Trypanosoma cruzi; Tc: > 30 μg/mL  
  Leishmania donovani and Ld: 8.61 μg/mL  
  Plasmodium falciparum Pf: 2.99 μg/mL  
4-Hydroxy-5,6,7,3,5-pentamethoxyflavone (ageconyflavone C) Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense; Tb: 3.01 μg/mL [98]
  Trypanosoma cruzi; Tc: > 30 μg/mL  
  Leishmania donovani and Ld: 3.56 μg/mL  
  Plasmodium falciparum Pf: 3.59 μg/mL  
3, 5, 7, 3’-Tetrahydroxy-4’-methoxyflavone Plasmodium falciparum [23]
Bractein Leishmania donovani [54]
Kaempferol Giardia lamblia 26.47 μg/mL [17]
Quercetin Giardia lamblia 8.73 μg/mL [17]
(−)-Epicatechin Giardia lamblia 1.64 μg/mL [17]
(−)-Epigallocatechin Giardia lamblia 8.06 μg/mL [17]
Quercetin Haemonchus contortus 250 μg/mL as highest concentration [57]
Luteolin Haemonchus contortus 250 μg/mL as highest concentration [57]
  Leishmania donovani 0.8 μg/mL [148]
Quercetin Leishmania donovani 1 μg/mL [148]
Fisetin Leishmania donovani 0.6 μg/mL [148]
3-Hydroxyflavone Leishmania donovani 0.7 μg/mL [148]
Luteolin Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 and 7G8 3D7: 11 μg/mL [66]
    7G8: 12 μg/mL  
Terpenoids      
Vernodalin Plasmodium falciparum 4 μg/mL [100]
Vernodalol Plasmodium falciparum 4.2 μg/mL [100]
Vernolide Plasmodium falciparum 8.4 μg/mL [100]
Hydroxyvernolide Plasmodium falciparum 11.4 μg/mL [100]
16,17- Dihydrobrachycalyxolide Plasmodium falciparum (K39, 3D7, V1/S and Dd2) K39: 4.2 μg/mL [101]
    3D7: 13.7 μg/mL  
    V1/S: 3 μg/mL  
    Dd2: 16 μg/mL  
Tagitinin C Plasmodium falciparum 0.75 μg/mL [38]
15-Acetoxy-8 β-[(2-methylbutyryloxy)]-14-oxo-4, 5-cis-acanthospermolide) Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 2.9 μg/mL [34]
9 α-Acetoxy-15-hydroxy- 8 β-(2-methylbutyryloxy)-14-oxo- 4,5-Trans-acanthospermolide Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 2.23 μg/mL [34]
3 β-Hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (oleanolic acid) Leishmania amazonensis La: > 100 μg/mL [116,162], [161]
  Leishmania braziliensis  
3 β-Hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (ursolic acid) Leishmania infantum Li: 7.4 μM [89]
  Trypanosoma brucei Tb: 2.2 μM  
  Trypanosoma cruzi Tc: 8.8 μM  
  Plasmodium falciparum Pf: 29.7 μM  
Indicusalactone Plasmodium falciparum 2.8 μg/mL [132]
(−)-Oxyfrullanolide Plasmodium falciparum 3.8 μg/mL [132]
7-Hydroxyfrullanolide, Plasmodium falciparum 2.5 μg/mL [132]
Squalene Plasmodium falciparum 2.3 μg/mL [132]
3,5-Di-O-caffeoylquinic acid methyl ester Plasmodium falciparum 2.4 μg/mL [132]
(3s)-16,17-Didehydrofalcarinol Leishmania mexicana 0.48 μM [76]
Ursolic acid Leishmania amazonensis 6.4 μg/mL [162]
  Leishmania infantum In vivo 1.0 mg/kg body weight (mice) [49]
Urs-12-ene-3 β,16 β-diol Plasmodium falciparum Pf: 9.7 μM [89]
  Leishmania infantum Li: 9.3 μM  
  Trypanosoma cruzi Tc: 9.9 μM  
  Trypanosoma brucei Tb: 2.3 μM  
3 β,11α-Dihydroxyurs-12-ene Plasmodium falciparum Pf: 23.9 μM [89]
  Leishmania infantum Li: 3.2 μM  
  Trypanosoma cruzi Tc: 8.1 μM  
  Trypanosoma brucei Tb: 7.8 μM  
Betulinic acid Caenorhabditis elegans 100 μg/mL [22]
  Plasmodium falciparum W2 2.33 μg/mL [91]
β-Sitosterol Trypanosoma brucei brucei S427 12.5 μg/mL [99]

Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.

Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.

Initial download of the metrics may take a while.