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Table 5

Chemical elements (Ca, S, P) detected in cut spines from the anterior, middle and posterior fields of the foretrunk of Neoandracantha peruensis.a

  Weight % Atomic %
Spines in anterior field    
   Calcium (Ca) 1.25 0.48
   Sulfur (S) 5.19 2.50
   Phosphorus (P) 0.85 0.42
Spines in middle field    
   Ca 0.7 0.27
   S 3.55 1.72
   P 0.53 0.27
Spines in posterior field    
   Ca 0.49 0.22
   S 2.82 1.59
   P 0.57 0.30

Other elements, carbon (C) and oxygen (O) are common in all living animals; gold (Au) and palladium (Pd) are used to coat the specimen in an 18 nm layer. Gallium (Ga) ions are used to cut the specimen.

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