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Research Article

Table 4

Chemical elements for 3 levels (tip, middle, base) of gallium cut hooks of Neoandracantha peruensis.a

  Hook edge Hook center


  Weight % Atomic % Weight % Atomic %
Hook tip        
   Magnesium (Mg) 1.02 0.84 1.08 0.60
   Phosphorus (P) 12.70 8.25 15.28 10.70
   Sulfur (S) 2.50 1.50 1.05 0.75
   Calcium (Ca) 26.41 13.17 34.31 18.56
Hook middle        
   Mg 0.26 0.21 0.93 0.81
   P 7.84 4.77 14.91 10.28
   S 6.20 3.64 0.28 0.19
   Ca 20.80 9.78 34.03 18.14
Hook base        
   Mg 0.75 0.69 0.82 0.74
   P 14.79 10.65 14.70 10.53
   S 0.32 0.22 0.20 0.14
   Ca 36.92 20.55 37.23 20.61
a

List includes four critical elements for the hardening of hooks (Mg, P, S, Ca). The other elements, carbon (C) and oxygen (O) are common in all living animals; gold (Au) and palladium (Pd) are used to coat the specimen in an 18 nm layer. Gallium (Ga) is the ion used to cut the specimen.

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