In vitro anti-cryptosporidial activity of plant by-products. Results from in vitro testing of 42 samples derived from 18 different plant by-products, four samples related to olives and monensin sodium salt against C. parvum. MIC100 indicates the minimal concentration of a sample, at which complete parasite inhibition was observed (μg mL−1 for solid samples, nL mL−1 for the oleuropein extract or nM for monensin). Samples that were active in the first trial were tested in three independent trials in total, whereas the others were not tested again. Four samples related to olives were tested in two trials, monensin in three. MCC75 is the minimal cytotoxic concentration against HCT-8 host cells (<75% host cell viability). Inhibitory concentrations within the non-toxic range for host cells are marked by bold print. The complete results table can be found as an online resource (Table S1).
|Test substance||Trial 1||Trial 2||Trial 3||Trial 1||Trial 2||Trial 3|
|Horse chestnut wastewater (AHW)||500||1000||1000||1000||1000||1000|
|Olive pomace ethanol extract (OEE)||250||500||500||>1000||>1000||>1000|
|Willow bark ethanol extract (SAE)||500||250–500||>500||>1000||>500||>500|
|Willow bark heptane extract (SAH)||1000||500||>500||>1000||>500||>500|
|Sinupret ethanol extract (SIE)||250–500||125–500||>500||>500||>500||500|
|Sinupret heptane extract (SIH)||250||>500||>500||>500||>500||>500|
|Grape seed extract (VVW)||500||1000||1000||1000||1000||1000|
|Coniferyl alcohol (≥97%)||>250||>250||250||>250|
|Oleuropein extract (8.2% oleuropein)||>1000||>1000||>1000||>1000|
|Monensin sodium (90–95%)||16.7||16.7–33.4||8.3||>133.5||>133.5||>133.5|
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