Open Access

Table 1.

Tunga species: Geographic distribution, sexes, stages, neosomes, and sites of attachment to their principal true hosts.

Tunga species (Geographical distribution) Sexes and stages Neosome (hypertrophied female)

Measurements (mm)
Main true hosts
Shape (length × width × height) Order: Genera (principal sites of attachment)
T. penetrans (Latin America, Africa) ♂, ♀, hypertrophied ♀, egg, larva 1st instar, larva 2nd instar, pupa Globular without lobes 6 × 5 × 4 Artiodactyla: Sus (feet, scrotum, snout),
Primates: Homo (between the toes, periungueal region)
Carnivora: Canis (around the claws, on the pads, on the muzzle)
Cingulata: Dasypus (feet and paws)
Rodentia: Rattus, Mus (feet)
T. caecata (Brazil) ♀, hypertrophied ♀ Globular without lobes 7 × 6 × 6 Rodentia: Rattus, Mus (upper surface of ears)
T. travassosi (Brazil) hypertrophied ♀ Globular without lobes 13 × 8 × 10 Cingulata: Dasypus (ventral abdominal region)
T. terasma (Brazil) ♂, ♀ (?), hypertrophied ♀ With four prominent subcylindrical lobes 10 × 9 × 13 Cingulata: Euphractus, Dasypus, Cabassous, Priodontes (ventral abdomen and toes)
T. bondari (Brazil) hypertrophied ♀ Mushroom-shaped with a stem and conical posterior region 6 × 6 × 5 Pilosa: Tamandua (ventral abdomen)
T. caecigena (China, Japan) ♂, ♀, hypertrophied ♀ Elliptical with four lobes: dorsal and ventral portions of similar dilatation 7–10 × 5 × 6 Rodentia: Rattus, Mus (edge of the pinna and dorsal surface of ears)
T. callida (China) ♂, ♀, hypertrophied ♀ Spherical with four lobes: dorsal portion more swelled than the ventral portion 4.5 × 4.5 × 4.5 Rodentia: Rattus, Mus (around the anus)
T. libis (Ecuador, Chile) ♂, ♀, hypertrophied ♀ Vertically elliptical and without lobes Higher than long Rodentia: Akodon, Phyllotis (ears)
T. monositus (USA, Mexico) ♂, ♀, hypertrophied ♀, egg, larva 1st instar, larva 2nd instar, pupa Bell-shaped with eight lobes, arranged as four large outer lobes and four small inner lobes 6 × 5.4 × 4.5 Rodentia: Peromyscus, Neotoma (upper surface of the pinna)
T. trimamillata (Ecuador, Peru, Brazil) ♂, ♀, hypertrophied ♀ Globular with three lobes located anteriorly 12 × 5 × 5 Artiodactyla: Bos (coronary band, sole of the hoof, perianal area, udder, prepuce) Primates: Homo (feet)
T. bossii (Brazil) hypertrophied ♀ Globular without lobes 9 × 8 × 7 Rodentia: Delomys (base of the tail)
T. bonneti (Chile) ♂, ♀, hypertrophied ♀ Horizontally elliptical without lobes, in form of rugby ball 10 × 6 × 6 Rodentia: Phyllotis great axis of the tail)
T. hexalobulata (Brazil) hypertrophied ♀ Spherical, with six lobes located anteriorly, pearl-white colored, slightly compressed in anterior direction 4 × 4 × 4 Artiodactyla: Bos (coronary band)

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