Summary of non-surgical, non-ERCP techniques for the treatment of cysto-biliary fistula in hepatic CE.
|Technique||Number and type of cyst/lesion||Drainage (days)||Follow-up (months)||References|
|Percutaneous transhepatic endobiliary drainage||1 Gharbi type IV ruptured and obstructing bile tract||7||30||[41, 73*]|
|Radiofrequency thermal ablation||1 post-surgical cavity with cutaneous and biliary fistulae||N/A§||9|||
|N-Butyl 2-Cyanoacrylate embolization||1 post-catheterization cavity with persistent biliary drainage||N/A§||3|||
|Percutaneous alcohol sclerotherapy after balloon occlusion of fistula||1 cyst (stage not reported) ruptured and obstructing the bile tract, treated with catheterization||24||0|||
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