Table 3.

Summary of non-surgical, non-ERCP techniques for the treatment of cysto-biliary fistula in hepatic CE.

Technique Number and type of cyst/lesion Drainage (days) Follow-up (months) References
Percutaneous transhepatic endobiliary drainage 1 Gharbi type IV ruptured and obstructing bile tract 7 30 [41, 73*]
Radiofrequency thermal ablation 1 post-surgical cavity with cutaneous and biliary fistulae N/A§ 9 [81]
N-Butyl 2-Cyanoacrylate embolization 1 post-catheterization cavity with persistent biliary drainage N/A§ 3 [21]
Percutaneous alcohol sclerotherapy after balloon occlusion of fistula 1 cyst (stage not reported) ruptured and obstructing the bile tract, treated with catheterization 24 0 [86]

N/A, not applicable.


Full paper or abstract not available; data refer to reference [41].

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