Ann. Parasitol. Hum. Comp.
Volume 55, Number 4, 1980
|Page(s)||445 - 453|
|Published online||20 September 2017|
Ecologie des Leishmanioses dans le Sud de la France
13. Les sites de “flanc de coteau”, biotopes de transmission privilégiés de la Leishmaniose viscérale en Cévennes.
Ecology of leishmaniasis in the south of France. 13. Middle slopes of hillsides as sites of maximum risk of transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in the Cévennes.
Laboratoire d’Ecologie médicale et Pathologie parasitaire (Pr J.-A. Rioux), Faculté de Médecine, F 34000 Montpellier, France.
2 Department of Zoology and Applied Entomology, Imperial College, London, England.
Accepté : 25 Mars 1980
Utilisant la technique des « transects de piégeage » dans un massif des Basses-Cévennes (Roquedur, Gard), les auteurs montrent que Phlebotomus ariasi Tonnoir, 1921 est localisé préférentiellement aux « zones de mi-pente ». C’est dans ces mêmes secteurs que s’observent la plupart des cas de Leishmaniose viscérale, tant humaine que canine.
In the Cévennes, the distribution of canine leishmaniasis and, therefore, of human visceral leishmaniasis is usually on the middle slopes of hillsides. From previous work, it was assumed that the reason is that the same places are the preferred habitats of the sandfly vector, Phlebotomus ariasi Tonnoir, 1921. An investigation was made throughout one season (13.05.1977 to 7.10.1977) of the comparative densities of sandflies at different altitudes on two opposite sides of a selected hill (le massif d’Oiselette) in the department of Gard, Oiled papers, changed every 15 days, were distributed at 22 points at altitudes from 165 to 600 m above sea level. A total of 5,050 sandflies were collected and analysed according to altitude and time of year. Of the sandflies collected, 86,2 % were P. ariasi, 0,3 % were P. perniciosus Newstead, 1911, 0,1 % were P. mascittii Grassi, 1908 and 13,4 % were Sergentomyia minuta (Rondani, 1843). P. ariasi was present at all altitudes with maximum densities between 300 and 500 m. This species was present from mid May until late September, with a maximum density at the end of July.
The results support the notion that, in the Cévennes, inhabitants of farms and villages on the slopes of hillsides at altitudes of 300-500 m are at the greatest risk of acquiring leishmaniasis because these places are the preferred habitat of the sandfly vector, P. ariasi.
© Masson, Paris 1980, transferred to Société Française de Parasitologie
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