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Figure 3


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Scheme of the haemostatic system. The diagram represents the physiological haemostatic system of vertebrates. The components of the coagulation system (coloured orange) and the fibrinolytic system (coloured blue) analysed in the present study and the interactions that occur between them are shown. Two components of the coagulation system included in a box and joined by a hyphen (–) constitute a complex acting as a group. The continuous arrow, the symbol ““ and the curved arrow between two components of the haemostatic system indicate activation, inhibition and degradation, respectively, of the second component by the first. The double arrow indicates cohesion between two components. The dashed arrow indicates different steps of a process. The diagram also represents the interactions between the species of helminth parasites and the host haemostatic system identified in the scoping review. The symbols coloured green, red, yellow and brown indicate activation, inhibition, binding and degradation, respectively, of the component of the haemostatic system marked by at least one of the species of helminth parasites analysed. These symbols are accompanied by two numbers in parenthesis separated by a slash: (the number of interactions of the specific type of interaction represented/the number of species of helminth parasites in which the type of interaction was described). (*) Interactions resulting in inhibition of coagulation without specifying the pathway. Abbreviations: FVII: factor VII; FVIIa: activated factor VII; TF: tissue factor; TFPI: tissue factor pathway inhibitor; AT-III: antithrombin III; FXII: factor XII; FXIIa: activated factor XII; FXI: factor XI; FXIa: activated factor XI; FIX: factor IX; FIXa: activated factor IX; FVIIIa: activated factor VIII; APC: activated protein C; FX: factor X; FXa: activated factor X; FVa: activated factor V; FXIIIa: activated factor XIII; vWF: von Willebrand factor; tPA: tissue plasminogen activator; uPA: urokinase-type plasminogen activator; PAI-1: plasminogen activator inhibitor 1; PAI-2: plasminogen activator inhibitor 2; A2AP: α2-antiplasmin.

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