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Table 1

A summary of the included studies.

No. Region City – State Total N Prevalence (%) Diagnostic method Author/year
Human host
1 Midwest Caceres – MT 53 9.4 C Alencar et al. [7]
2 Midwest Campo Novo do Parecis – MT 43 37.2 C Zenazokenae et al. [219]
3 Midwest Caceres – MT 183 36.6 C Silva et al. [196]
4 Midwest Rondonopolis – MT 215 11.5 C Luz et al. [125]
5 Midwest Parque do Xingu – MT 304 52.9 C Escobar-Pardo et al. [77]
6 Midwest MT 173 16.8 C Coimbra Jr and Santos [60]
7 Midwest Parque Xingu – MT 62 75.8 C Ferreira et al. [87]
8 Midwest Mirassol D’Oeste – MT 149 38.2 C Latorraca et al. [118]
9 Midwest Corumba – MS 200 52.0 C Silva et al. [198]
10 Midwest Corumba – MS 196 55.1 C Silva et al. [197]
11 Midwest Campo Grande – MS 510 4.6 C Curval et al. [65]
12 Midwest Campo Grande – MS 66 25.7 C Higa Júnior et al. [104]
13 Midwest MS 103 43.7 C Neres-Norberg et al. [150]
14 Midwest Bonito – MS 115 23.5 C Gomes et al. [97]
15 Midwest Sidrolandia – MS 313 64.8 C Aguiar et al. [4]
16 Midwest DF 75 53.3 C Pereira et al. [157]
17 Midwest Cumari – GO 1029 2.7 C Borges et al. [33]
18 South Moreira Sales – PR 42 4.8 C Barbosa and Pavanelli [20]
19 South Maringa – PR 150 16.0 C Colli et al. [61]
20 South Campo Mourao – PR 5219 7.2 C Mortean et al. [144]
21 South Maria Helena – PR 431 6.5 C Santos and Merlini [177]
22 South Cascavel – PR 343 17.8 C Takizawa et al. [207]
23 South Ubirata – PR 86 4.6 C Falavigna et al. [79]
24 South Campo Mourao – PR 86 4.6 C Kulik et al. [117]
25 South Jataizinho – PR 264 26.9 C Lopes et al. [122]
26 South Pitanga – PR 181 20.9 C Nascimento and Moitinho [149]
27 South Maringa – PR 369 5.9 C Guilherme et al. [101]
28 South Porto Alegre – PR 17,951 15.1 C De Carli et al. [69]
29 South Pelotas – RS 73 35.6 C Jeske et al. [111]
30 South Ipe – RS 124 4.0 C Zanotto et al. [218]
31 South Palmeiras das Missoes – RS 209 20.6 C Nagel et al. [148]
32 South Caxias do Sul – RS 257 1.5 C Camello et al. [44]
33 South Caxias do Sul – RS 331 3.3 C Porto et al. [162]
34 South Flores da Cunha – RS 341 3.2 C Cavagnolli et al. [53]
35 South Rio Grande – RS 144 28.5 C Mata-Santos et al. [136]
36 South Porto Alegre – RS 146 10.3 C Silva et al. [192]
37 South Caxias do Sul – RS 9787 14.6 C Basso et al. [22]
38 South Porto Alegre – RS 181 14.9 C Bencke et al. [24]
39 South Campos Novos – SC 109 13.7 C Biolchi et al. [28]
40 South Florianopolis – SC 3126 3.5 C Bueno et al. [40]
41 South Florianopolis – SC 57 31.6 C Santos et al. [180]
42 South Blumenau – SC 53 18.9 C Andrade et al. [11]
43 South Criciuma – SC 94 56.4 E Schnack et al. [185]
44 South Florianopolis – SC 43 4.6 C Korzeniowski et al. [116]
45 Northeast Teresina – PI 39,539 8.4 C Ibiapina et al. [108]
46 Northeast Burti dos Lopes – PI 511 8.4 C Sousa et al. [201]
47 Northeast Parnaiba – PI 251 29.9 C Fernandes et al. [85]
48 Northeast Sao Raimundo Nonato – PI 265 42.6 C Alves et al. [10]
49 Northeast Santa Cruz – RN 3480 2.3 C Lima et al. [121]
50 Northeast Aracaju – SE 476 31.3 C Oliveira et al. [155]
51 Northeast Aracaju – SE 500 32.6 C Rollemberg et al. [172]
52 Northeast Aracaju – SE 298 14.1 C and E Lawson et al. [119]
53 Northeast Santo Antonio de Jesus – BA 144 45.8 C Reis et al. [167]
54 Northeast Salvador – BA 48,028 0.5 C and M Soares et al. [200]
55 Northeast Santo Antonio de Jesus – BA 144 45.8 C Andrade et al. [12]
56 Northeast Aiquara – BA 236 15.7 C Santos et al. [183]
57 Northeast Feira de Santana – BA 349 50.1 C Almeida et al. [9]
58 Northeast Ilheus – BA 97 49.5 C and E Santos et al. [181]
59 Northeast Salvador – BA 200 65.0 C Seixas et al. [186]
60 Northeast Salvador – BA 52,704 3.4 C and M Santos et al. [178]
61 Northeast Salvador – BA 5624 15.6 C Santos et al. [176]
62 Northeast Ipira – BA 410 12.2 C Santos-Junior et al. [184]
63 Northeast Cuite – PB 45 40.0 C Bezerra et al. [27]
64 Northeast Joao Pessoa – PB 150 18.6 C Monteiro et al. [143]
65 Northeast Campina Grande – PB 1195 69.0 C and E Silva et al. [195]
66 Northeast Joao Pessoa – PB 67 28.3 C Magalhães et al. [129]
67 Northeast Campina Grande – PB 742 93.1 C Silva et al. [188]
68 Northeast Russas – CE 213 21.6 C and M Calegar et al. [43]
69 Northeast Fortaleza – CE 582 29.4 C Bachur et al. [15]
70 Northeast Fortaleza – CE 735 38.3 C and E Braga et al. [36]
71 Northeast Fortaleza – CE 161 20.5 E Braga et al. [35]
72 Northeast Fortaleza – CE 564 36.2 C and E Braga et al. [34]
73 Northeast Maceio – AL 1003 6.4 C and M Santos et al. [182]
74 Northeast Maceio – AL 1798 3.8 C and E Duarte et al. [74]
75 Northeast Recife – PE 213 4.7 C and E Dourado et al. [72]
76 Northeast Recife e Macaparana – PE 1783 5.8 C and M Pinheiro et al. [159]
77 Northeast Macaparana – PE 1437 2.6 C and M Pinheiro et al. [158]
78 Northeast Recife, Palmares e Bodoco – PE 633 28.3 C, Z and E Aca et al. [3]
79 Northeast Sao Lourenço da Mata – PE 485 41.2 C and E Gonçalves et al. [98]
80 Northeast Recife – PE 459 50.9 E Okazaki et al. [153]
81 Northeast Chapadinha – MA 3933 26.9 C Silva et al. [190]
82 Northeast, North Timo – MA, Macapa – AP 10,260 3.8 C Ferraz et al. [86]
83 North Belem – PA 320 3.7 C Carvalho et al. [50]
84 North Santarem – PA 367 34.3 C Banhos et al. [16]
85 North Belem – PA 334 28.4 C and E Silva et al. [187]
86 North Belem – PA 438 28.9 E Póvoa et al. [163]
87 North PA 300 57.6 C Miranda et al. [140]
88 North Presidente Figueiredo – AM 143 4.2 C Gonçalves et al. [99]
89 North Coari – AM 65 9.2 C Silva et al. [194]
90 North Santa Izabel do Rio Negro – AM 463 25.3 C Valverde et al. [215]
91 North Manaus – AM 400 40.5 C Oliveira et al. [154]
92 North Iauarete – AM 333 31.2 C Boia et al. [32]
93 North Manaus – AM 451 23.9 C Maia et al. [130]
94 North Coari – AM 211 29.4 C Monteiro et al. [142]
95 North Coari – AM 123 21.1 C Silva et al. [189]
96 North Sao Gabriel da Cachoeira – AM 895 29.9 C Rios et al. [170]
97 North Santa Izabel do Rio Negro – AM 308 71.7 C Boia et al. [31]
98 North Eirunepe – AM 413 38.2 C Araújo and Fernandez [13]
99 North Manaus – AM 1585 37.3 C and E Benetton et al. [25]
100 North Nova Olinda do Norte – AM 81 23.4 C Hurtado-Guerrero et al. [106]
101 North Novo Airao – AM 316 29.1 C Boia et al. [30]
102 North Manaus – AM 110 9.1 C Giugliano et al. [96]
103 North Ariquemes e Monte Negro – RO 216 50.4 C and E Santos et al. [179]
104 North Acrelandia – AC 429 25.6 C Souza et al. [202]
105 Southeast Diamantina – MG 66 18.2 C Eustachio et al. [78]
106 Southeast Belo Horizonte – MG 6289 6.5 C and M Costa et al. [62]
107 Southeast Viçosa – MG 419 32.9 C Iasbik et al. [107]
108 Southeast Alfenas – MG 277 2.5 C Felizardo et al. [83]
109 Southeast Ituiutaba – MG 140 22.1 C Moura et al. [146]
110 Southeast Sete Lagoas – MG 26 30.8 C Pires et al. [160]
111 Southeast Uberaba – MG 1323 6.4 C Cabrine-Santos et al. [42]
112 Southeast Caldas – MG 60 66.6 Simões et al. [199]
113 Southeast Divinopolis – MG 1403 5.7 C and E Pereira et al. [156]
114 Southeast MG 409 89.7 C Assis et al. [14]
115 Southeast Uberaba – MG 82 63.4 M Cembranelli et al. [54]
116 Southeast Ouro verde de minas – MG 315 28.2 C Carvalho et al. [49]
117 Southeast Uberlandia – MG 110 17.3 C Ferreira-Filho et al. [89]
118 Southeast Viçosa – MG 246 4.1 C Einloft et al. [75]
119 Southeast Pato de Minas – MG 161 16.1 C Silva and Silva [191]
120 Southeast Berilo – MG 149 24.8 C Martins et al. [135]
121 Southeast Vespasiano – MG 176 16.5 C Barçante et al. [21]
122 Southeast Uberlandia – MG 160 23.1 C Machado et al. [127]
123 Southeast Abadia dos Dourados – MG 376 20.5 C Machado et al. [128]
124 Southeast Belo Horizonte – MG 472 14.6 C Menezes et al. [138]
125 Southeast Vespasiano – MG 537 6.3 C Santos et al. [175]
126 Southeast Bambui – MG 2811 7.4 C Rocha et al. [171]
127 Southeast Uberlandia – MG 264 1.5 C Rezende et al. [169]
128 Southeast Uberlandia – MG 104 24.0 C Costa-Cruz et al. [63]
129 Southeast Uberlandia – MG 100 62.0 C Favoreto Jr and Machado [82]
130 Southeast Sao Mateus – ES 50 36.0 C Albuquerque and Souza [6]
131 Southeast Sao Matheus – ES 42 19.0 C Brauer et al. [39]
132 Southeast Sao Mateus – ES 221 31.2 C Damázio et al. [67]
133 Southeast Sao Mateus – ES 82 31.7 C Damázio et al. [66]
134 Southeast Sumidouro – RJ 294 12.9 C Barbosa et al. [19]
135 Southeast Rio de Janeiro – RJ 3245 6.8 C Faria et al. [81]
136 Southeast Rio de Janeiro – RJ 595 12.2 C Ignácio et al. [109]
137 Southeast Rio de Janeiro – RJ 180 10.5 Valença-Barbosa et al. [214]
138 Southeast Niteroi – RJ 68 17.6 C Leite et al. [120]
139 Southeast Niteroi – RJ 1749 5.4 C Macedo et al. [126]
140 Southeast Niteroi – RJ 429 11.6 C Uchôa et al. [213]
141 Southeast Rio de Janeiro – RJ 218 1.4 C Carvalho-Costa et al. [51]
142 Southeast Niteroi – RJ 140 15.7 C Port-Lourenço et al. [161]
143 Southeast Niteroi – RJ 261 21.8 C Uchôa et al. [212]
144 Southeast RJ 99 31.3 C Moura et al. [145]
145 Southeast Ribeirao Preto – SP 233 13.3 C Fonseca et al. [91]
146 Southeast Sao Jose do Rio Preto – SP 100 7.0 C Castro et al. [52]
147 Southeast Campos do Jordao – SP 185 22.2 C Branco et al. [37]
148 Southeast Mirassol – SP 310 15.1 C Belloto et al. [23]
149 Southeast Sao Jose do Rio Preto – SP 500 0.8 C Cardoso et al. [48]
150 Southeast Sao Paulo – SP 66 40.9 C Lopes et al. [123]
151 Southeast Catanduva – SP 133 9.7 C Biscegli et al. [29]
152 Southeast Presidente Bernardes – SP 101 8.9 C Tashima et al. [209]
153 Southeast Ribeirao Preto – SP 429 9.3 C Capuano et al. [47]
154 Southeast Araraquara – SP 503 14.5 C Miné and Rosa [139]
155 Southeast Sao Paulo – SP 120 16.6 C Korkes et al. [115]
156 Southeast Catanduva – SP 250 34.4 C Faleiros et al. [80]
157 Southeast Presidente Prudente – SP 1000 7.1 C Tashima and Simões [208]
158 Southeast Sao Paulo – SP 200 13.0 C Cimerman et al. [58]
159 Southeast Sao Jose da Bela Vista – SP 1032 0.2 C Tavares-Dias and Grandini [210]
160 Southeast Botucatu – SP 147 22.4 C Guimarães and Sogayar [102]
161 Southeast Holambra – SP 222 15.7 C Kobayashi et al. [114]
162 Southeast Sao Paulo – SP 407 1.5 C Ferreira et al. [88]
163 Southeast Osasco – SP 155 21.3 Z Aca et al. [2]
164 Southeast Sao Paulo – SP 395 25.8 C Guerra et al. [100]
165 Southeast Guarulhos – SP 913 21.9 C Chieffi et al. [56]
166 Southeast Ribeirao Preto – SP 1351 23.1 C Ferriolli-Filho [90]
Animal host
167 Southeast Rio de Janeiro – RJ 13 (bird – emu) 23.1 C and M Gallo et al. [93]
168 Southeast Rio de Janeiro – RJ 1190 (non-human primate) 33.4 C Barbosa et al. [18]
169 Southeast Petropolis – RJ 790 (pig) 21.5 C Barbosa et al. [17]
170 Southeast Sao Paulo – SP 21 (rodent – mouse) 9.5 C Chagas et al. [55]
171 Southeast Bauru – SP 47 (non-human primate) 23.4 C David et al. [68]
172 Southeast Botucatu – SP 207 (bird) 1.9 C Marietto-Gonçalves et al. [132]
173 Southeast Sao Paulo – SP 31 (canid – guara wolf) 22.6 C Gilioli and Silva [95]
174 Southeast Sao Paulo – SP 103 (edentate – anteater) 4.8 C Diniz et al. [71]
175 Northeast CE – MA – PI – PE – BA 340 (dog) 3.8 C Zanetti et al. [217]
176 Northeast Aracaju – SE 44 (rodent – mouse) 2.3 C Guimarães et al. [103]
177 Northeast Lajes – RN 64 (sheep) 17.2 C Souza et al. [203]
178 Northeast Itabuna – BA 119 (dog) 0.8 C Campos-Filho et al. [45]
179 Northeast Recife – PE 685 (bird) 5.7 C Freitas et al. [92]
180 North Sena Madureira – AC 18 (bird) 22.2 C Souza et al. [204]
181 Midwest Caceres – MT 120 (dog) 15.8 C Rosales and Malheiros [173]
182 South SC 217 (goat) 1.8 C Radavelli et al. [164]

Abbreviations: MT – Mato Grosso; PR – Parana; PI – Piaui; RN – Rio Grande do Norte; PA – Para; MG – Minas Gerais; SE – Sergipe; BA – Bahia; MS – Mato Grosso do Sul; ES – Espirito Santo; RJ – Rio de Janeiro; PB – Paraiba; RS – Rio Grande do Sul; SP – Sao Paulo; CE – Ceara; AL – Alagoas; SC – Santa Catarina; DF – Federal District (capital of Brazil); MA – Maranhao; AP – Amapa; AM – Amazonas; RO – Rondonia; GO – Goias; AC – Acre; PE – Pernambuco. C – conventional method, based on detection by optical microscopy; M – molecular method, based on DNA detection; E – Elisa method, serology-based; Z – zymodema method, based on isoenzyme analysis.

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