Table 2

SWOT analysis for AR research in Europe. COMBAR = EU COST Action Combating Anthelmintic Resistance in Europe [37]; AR = Anthelmintic Resistance; STAR-IDAZ IRC = International Research Consortium on Animal Health.

Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats
European initiative endorsed by all COMBAR members Data on AR not collected on a constant basis (non-continuous and non-consistent data collection) Real-time data sharing including a live database on AR in ruminant livestock Insufficient public awareness of AR (compared to antimicrobial resistance)
Consistency and compliance with the priorities of the STAR-IDAZ IRC on animal health Lack of harmonised tests for field and laboratory detection of AR to allow early reaction Development of coordinated European surveillance system of AR. The pattern in the AR maps could be misleading (black-box effect)
Disseminate knowledge and promote the use of standardised methods for determining AR
Live database compiled by regional experts with published and unpublished data Fragmented surveillance systems and data biased towards Northern European countries and towards GIN  Striving to obtain precise location of AR cases Data protection legislation may hamper the availability of georeferenced data to allow robust spatial analyses of AR
Operate in real time, providing maps, tables and reports Spatial sampling bias can limit the analysis and interpretation of AR data Rapid, responsive, efficient, and cost-effective planning of AR surveys Confounding factors not related to AR may not be taken into consideration

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