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Level of anthelmintic resistance in each country, using a composite index across all drugs tested, in relation to research effort (= confidence) as a function of number of studies, farms and anthelmintics investigated. See methods for details of indices. Note that horizontal scales are different for each panel. For gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep in Ireland, the confidence score was modified to take account of a single large study that assessed treatment efficacy through pooled faecal sampling by farmers at and after treatment . GIN = Gastrointestinal nematodes. Country abbreviations: AT = Austria, BE = Belgium, CH = Switzerland, CZ = Czechia, DE = Germany, DK = Denmark, EL = Greece, ES = Spain, FR = France, IE = Ireland, IT = Italy, LT = Lithuania, NL = Netherlands, NO = Norway, PL = Poland, RO = Romania, RS = Serbia, SE = Sweden, SK = Slovakia, UK = United Kingdom.
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