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Table 2A

Rejected terms for the genetics and epidemiology of Echinococcus species.

Word/expression Definition Reasons for rejection, references, linguistic clarifications Comments
Alveococcus, Noun Non-valid genus name often used in the Russian/ex-Soviet Union literature to include Echinococcus multilocularis (Leuckart, 1863) which actually belongs to the Echinococcus genus. E. multilocularis (Leuckart, 1863) belongs to the Echinococcus genus [50, 67]. The International Code for Zoological Nomenclature should be followed (see Table 1A) [52]. The genus Alveococcus Abuladze, 1959 (including Alveococcus multilocularis (Leuckart, 1863)), still used occasionally, particularly in Russian literature, was erected to separate E. multilocularis from the other species. There is no longer a taxonomic basis for this different genus name.
Only those approved species names in the genus Echinococcus mentioned in Table 1A should be used.
Echinococcus alveolaris, Expression Non-valid species name sometimes – and even recently – used in the German and Turkish literature to designate either the species Echinococcus multilocularis or the disease “alveolar echinococcosis”[60]. To designate the cestode, the International Code for Zoological Nomenclature should be followed (see Table 1A) Should definitively be abandoned.
To designate the disease, the recommendations of the World Federation of Parasitologists (WFP) should be followed (see Table 1C)
Echinococcus cysticus, Expression Non-valid species name sometimes used in the German and Turkish literature to designate either the species Echinococcus granulosus s.l. or the disease “cystic echinococcosis”[44] To designate the cestode, the International Code for Zoological Nomenclature should be followed (see Table 1A) Should definitively be abandoned.
To designate the disease, the recommendations of the World Federation of Parasitologists (WFP) should be followed (see Table 1C).
Echinococcus granulosis Non-valid species name with wrong orthography, often found in publications. To designate the cestode, the International Code for Zoological Nomenclature should be followed (see Table 1A). Simply wrong.
Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato species (non-exhaustive, following alphabetic order), Synonymous expressions:
  • E. borealis

  • E. cameroni

  • E. cepanzoi

  • E. intermedius

  • E. longimanubrius

  • E. lycaontis

  • E. minimus

  • E. patagonicus

Non-valid historical or recently proposed species names for Echinococcus spp. within the Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato complex that were later synonymized with the currently recognized species. Recently proposed species names should not be used, unless a case can be made (e.g. by molecular studies) that they merit recognition as separate species. Only those approved species names in the genus Echinococcus mentioned in Table 1A should be used.
Pending precise definition of additional species within Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato, besides the currently accepted “species” (see Table 1A), “G” genotypes should be used [5254, 57, 66].
Echinococcus oligarthrus, Echinococcus oligarthus, Expressions Non-valid names of the species among Echinococcus spp. which is responsible for one of the clinical forms of “neotropical echinococcoses” Often referred to as E. oligarthrus (or even oligarthus), the species was originally described as Taenia oligarthra (Diesing, 1863) by Diesing [14]. In this case, there was no mistake in the original name of species given by Diesing; variants were used mistakenly afterwards in the scientific literature. However, the genus “Echinococcus” was subsequently identified and replaced the genus “Taenia”.
Linguistic and historical arguments are convincing [52, 58, 81]. See Table 1A.
The component ἄρθρα – arthra (joints) – is the plural of ἄρθρον -arthron (joint). The name is therefore not an adjective, but a noun in apposition, which does not change its ending according to the gender of the generic name. This was recognized earlier but subsequently ignored.
Echinococcus sibiricensis (Rausch & Schiller, 1954), Expression Non-valid historical name for Echinococcus multilocularis. E. multilocularis (Leuckart, 1863) is currently the only accepted name in the international nomenclature [18, 50, 63, 77]. The species described as E. sibiricensis (Rausch & Schiller, 1954), was subsequently found to be conspecific with E. multilocularis (Leuckart, 1863) [63].

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