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Table 1

Response rate per variable, percentage of dog serum samples positive for antibodies against Neospora caninum (prevalence) by variable category, age-adjusted odds-ratios (OR) with 95% confidence interval, and p-values (based on likelihood ratio tests) for those variables in the bivariable logistic regression analysis.

Variable Prevalence (%) OR (95% CI) p-value
Age >0.20
 <3 years 16.4 Reference
 >3 years 20.1 1.37 (1.00-1.89)
 Missing 19.8 1.22 (0.74-1.98)
Sex >0.20
 Male 18.6 Reference
 Female 32.2 2.64 (0.86–8.12)
 Missing 21.3 1.24 (0.91–1.70)
Former stray <0.20
 No 10.7 Reference
 Yes 35.4 4.45 (1.75–11.3)
 Missing 19.9 2.07 (1.12–3.83)
Dogs living on cattle farms <0.20
 No 14.1 Reference
 Yes 27.9 1.90 (1.07–3.37)
 Missing 17.5 1.18 (0.28–5.03)
Dogs in the household <0.20
 No 25.9 Reference
 1 or 2 13.8 0.77 (0.34–1.71)
 3 or more 9.2 0.32 (0.17–0.63)
 Missing 19.1 0.89 (0.39–2.01)
Raw meat <0.20
 No 10.2 Reference
 Yes 21.6 2.54 (0.73-8.86)
 Missing 20.5 2.36 (0.48-11.5)
Dogs around the house
 No 17.4 Reference >0.20
 Yes 39.3 2.89 (1.98–4.21)
 Missing 22.8 1.44 (0.80–2.60)
Breed <0.20
 Pure breed 18.7 Reference
 Mixed breed 37.2 2.58 (1.24–5.37)
 Missing 19.5 1.01 (0.45–2.28)
Outdoor access <0.20
 No 9.7 Reference
 Yes 22.8 1.10 (0.48–2.52)
 Missing 10.4 0.91 (0.57–1.45)
Hours outside per day <0.20
 Not outside 10.2 Reference
  <1 h 16.7 1.47 (0.40–5.35)
  1–5 h 22.3 2.29 (0.77–6.83)
  >5 h 35.1 4.54 (2.73–7.56)
 Missing 23.6 2.66 (1.13–6.30)
Hunting <0.20
 No 17.3 Reference
 Yes 35.2 2.58 (1.24–5.37)
 Missing 18.8 1.15 (0.52–2.57)
Neutered >0.20
 No 10.8 Reference
 Yes 30.5 3.72 (1.57–8.79)
 Missing 24.9 2.93 (1.40–6.14)
Vaccinated >0.20
 No 21.1 Reference
 Yes 19.3 0.82 (0.35–1.97)
 Missing 20.4 0.95 (0.57–1.61)
Contact with young dogs <0.20
 No 17.6 Reference
 Yes 24.8 1.63 (0.95–2.79)
 Missing 24.5 1.49 (0.93–2.37)
Use of litter tray <0.20
 No 25.3 Reference
 Yes 16.5 0.46 (0.19–1.15)
 Missing 19.3 0.54 (0.37–0.78)

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