Table 3

Life-table attributes of three Tunisian species. Sand flies collected in a light trap from a site in Tunisia were blood fed and transferred to an oviposition/rearing pot where they laid eggs. As several species were known to occur at this particular site, the F1 progeny of the parent adults were reared together. The F1 females were blood fed and transferred individually to oviposition/rearing vials and F2 progeny were reared as isolines. The parent females were identified postmortem and their progeny were separated by species and their development chronicled as shown below.

Life Table Attributes (Second Generation) Phlebotomus perniciosus Phlebotomus longicuspis Phlebotomus perfiliewi
Tunisian Sand Flies (26 °C, 80% RH) (PRTN) (PLTN) (PFTN)

Developmental Time in Days Mean (Standard Deviation) Mean (Standard Deviation) Mean (Standard Deviation)
  Blood Meal to Oviposition 6(2.16) 8(1.86) 9(2.12)
  Oviposition to Egg Hatching 7(1.52) 8(5.13) 5(1.66)
  Egg Hatching to 2nd Instar (1st Stadium) 6(1.41) 6(5.78) 7(2.16)
  2nd to 3rd Instar (2nd Stadium) 4(1.28) 4(2.89) 5(1.77)
  3rd to 4th Instar (3rd Stadium) 5(3.06) 5(2.89) 6(2.80)
  4th to Pupa (4th Stadium) 8(1.88) 8(4.18) 7(4.50)
  Pupa to 1st Adult (Pupal Stage) 10(1.64) 9(3.35) 9(2.94)
  Oviposition to 1st Adult 40(3.31) 40(4.20) 39(6.86)
  Oviposition to 1st Male 40(3.33) 39(3.71) 40(6.50)
  Oviposition to 1st Female 42(3.31) 43(4.50) 42(4.65)
  Protandry 2(1.91) 4(2.59) 4(3.72)
  Mean Number of Days of Male Emergence 5(2.17) 6(2.83) 5(2.70)
  Mean Number of Days of Female Emergence 7(2.29) 5(2.91) 5(2.92)
  Mean Number of Days to Adult Emergence 6(2.37) 5(2.87) 5(2.77)
  Mean Generation Time (BM to 1st Adult) 46 47 48
  Mean Number of Eggs/Female 34(12.85) 29(13.24) 32(9.50)
  Range 2-57 7-66 12-49
  Number of Fertile Egg Batches 53 44 24
  Number of Egg Batches Producing Adults 50 37 16
  Number of Adults Emerged (#M,#F) 1048(405,643) 625(308,317) 232(112,120)
  Sex Ratio (Males/Total Adults) 0.39 0.49 0.48
  Rate of Increase (Females/#Egg Batches) 13 9 8

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