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Table 2.

Examples of studies on Hesperomyces virescens parasitizing Harmonia axyridis. The parasite prevalences (= number of infected individuals/total number of ladybirds sampled (N)) show that H. axyridis has become the “main host” species in several well-studied localities.

Country Locality Time N Prevalence (%) Reference
USA Silver Lake Farm, Kentucky May to August 2004 147 82.3 [14]
USA USDA-ARS, Byron, Georgia April to October 2007 646 50.1 [21]
USA USDA-ARS, Byron, Georgia April 2014 306 66.4 T. Cottrell and D. Haelewaters, unpublished data
Germany Justus-Liebig University, Giessen January 2010 134 79.1 [5]
The Netherlands Winterswijk, Gelderland Winter 2010 72 55.6 [19]
Belgium Botanic Garden Meise, Flemish Brabant Winter 2011 86 96.5 [7]
South Africa Stellenbosch, Western Cape 2013–2015 1794 29.4 Present paper

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