Comparison on the life cycle and characteristics of four pennellids (Lernaeocera branchialis, Cardiodectes medusaeus, Lernaeenicus sprattae and Peniculus minuticaudae).
||Lernaeocera branchialis (Linnaeus, 1767)||Cardiodectes medusaeus (Wilson, 1908)||Lernaeenicus sprattae (Sowerby, 1806)||Peniculus minuticaudae (Shiino, 1956)|
|Developmental stages||8 (2 naupliar, 1 copepodid, 4 chalimi, adult)||5 (1 copepodid, 3 chalimi, adult)||8 (2 naupliar, 1 copepodid, 4 chalimi, adult)||6 (1 copepodid, 4 chalimi, adult)|
|Host(s) needed to complete life cycle||Double||Double||Single||Single|
|Intermediate host||Mainly fishes, Pleuronectidae||Pelagic gastropods, mainly Cavolinidae and Janthinidae||–||–|
|Definitive host||Fish, Gadidae||Fish, Myctophidae||Fish, Clupeidae||Fishes, Monacanthidae, Chaetodontidae|
|Infection site of copepodid stage||Gill lamellae||Gill lamellae/mantle tissues||Body surface and fins||Fins|
|Infection site of post-metamorphic female||Burrowing through the gill arch to reach the heart of the fish host||Burrowing from various parts of the ventral surface of the fish host to reach the heart||Eyes||Fins|
|Possible food source of larval stages and post-metamorphic female||Blood||Blood||Blood, coelomic and tissues fluid||Presumably epithelium tissue and mucous|
|Range size of post-metamorphic female||20–50 mm||8.5–15 mm||12–18 mm||5–6 mm|
|References||Sproston , Brooker et al. [7, 8], Kearn ||Ho , Perkins ||Schram , Kearn ||Shiino , Nagasawa et al. , Venmathi Maran et al. , Okawachi et al. , present study|
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