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Table 2.

Comparison on the life cycle and characteristics of four pennellids (Lernaeocera branchialis, Cardiodectes medusaeus, Lernaeenicus sprattae and Peniculus minuticaudae).

Pennellids
Lernaeocera branchialis (Linnaeus, 1767) Cardiodectes medusaeus (Wilson, 1908) Lernaeenicus sprattae (Sowerby, 1806) Peniculus minuticaudae (Shiino, 1956)
Characteristics
Developmental stages 8 (2 naupliar, 1 copepodid, 4 chalimi, adult) 5 (1 copepodid, 3 chalimi, adult) 8 (2 naupliar, 1 copepodid, 4 chalimi, adult) 6 (1 copepodid, 4 chalimi, adult)
Host(s) needed to complete life cycle Double Double Single Single
Intermediate host Mainly fishes, Pleuronectidae Pelagic gastropods, mainly Cavolinidae and Janthinidae
Definitive host Fish, Gadidae Fish, Myctophidae Fish, Clupeidae Fishes, Monacanthidae, Chaetodontidae
Infection site of copepodid stage Gill lamellae Gill lamellae/mantle tissues Body surface and fins Fins
Infection site of post-metamorphic female Burrowing through the gill arch to reach the heart of the fish host Burrowing from various parts of the ventral surface of the fish host to reach the heart Eyes Fins
Possible food source of larval stages and post-metamorphic female Blood Blood Blood, coelomic and tissues fluid Presumably epithelium tissue and mucous
Range size of post-metamorphic female 20–50 mm 8.5–15 mm 12–18 mm 5–6 mm
References Sproston [29], Brooker et al. [7, 8], Kearn [19] Ho [12], Perkins [25] Schram [26], Kearn [19] Shiino [27], Nagasawa et al. [20], Venmathi Maran et al. [30], Okawachi et al. [24], present study

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