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Schematic life cycle of Peniculus minuticaudae Shiino, 1956. A, infective copepodid; B, chalimus I; C, chalimus II; D, chalimus III; E, chalimus IV; F, pre-metamorphic adult female; G, adult male; H, pre-copulation guarding of chalimus I female by adult male; I, copulation of adult male to pre-metamorphic adult female; J, fertilized pre-metamorphic adult female with spermatophores, detached from temporary frontal filament and swimming to locate new settlement site; K, fertilized pre-metamorphic adult female clinging to the new settlement site on the fin ray of host; L, ovigerous post-metamorphic female on the fin of fish host; M, fish host, threadsail filefish (Stephanolepis cirrhifer). Arrowheads show infection sites of P. minuticaudae on the host. Stages involved in precopulation surrounded by continuous lines; free-swimming stages surrounded by dotted lines.
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