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Table V.

Principal human and zoonotic vector-borne infections, and their epidemiologic characteristics (non-exhaustive list).

FDA = French departments in America. * documents of WHO for updated information.

* Documents of WHO for updated information.

Diseases Agents Vectors Hosts-reservoirs Distribution Mode Incidence in transmission area Morbidity Lethality Tendency

Virus (arbovirus)

Dengue Flaviviridae Flavivirus Ae. aegypti, Ae. lbopictus Ae. polynesiensis Men, vectors Ubiquitous (Metropolitan France, FDA, Réunion, Mayotte, Polynesia included), except cold areas Endemo-epidemic High Important Yes Expanding

Japanese encephalitis Flaviviridae Flavivirus Culex tritaeniorhynchus Pigs, wild birds Indian peninsula, Far East, South-Eastern Asie, Papua Endemo-epidemic High Important Yes Expanding except in countries that have access to vaccination

West Nile fever Flaviviridae Flavivirus Mosquitoes Culex sp. Birds All continents, of which Europe, Mediterranean area, Guadeloupe Endemo-epidemic Low Potentially important in case of epidemics Important in case of encephalitis Expanding in Northern America and Mediterranean area

European tick-borne encephalitis Flaviviridae Flavivirus Ticks Ixodes ricinus Wild mammals, vectors Central, Eastern and Northern Europe Eastern France Endemic Low Important Mild to important in case of encephalitis Expanding in Eastern Europe Stable in French Metropole

Far-Eastern tick-borne encephalitis Flaviviridae Flavivirus Ticks I. persulcatus Mainly rodents Far East and Siberia Epidemic Low High Important Expanding

Yellow fever Flaviviridae Flavivirus Mosquitoes Aedes sp. Monkeys, vectors Sub-Saharan Africa, Amazon (and Guyane) Isolated cases Epidemic Low Important High Unstable* (vaccination)

Chikungunya Togaviridae Alphavirus Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus Men, monkeys, vectors Africa, Indian Ocean (and Réunion, Mayotte), Asia, Southern Europe and France Potentially: FDA, Pacific Epidemic High Important Low Recurrent epidemics (every 10-20 years)

Toscana virus infection Bunyaviridae Phlebovirus Sand flies Men (other mammals), vectors Mediterranean area Endemic Low Mild None Stable but better diagnosis

Rift Valley fever Bunyaviridae Phlebovirus Mosquitoes Culex, Aedes Ruminants, vectors Africa, Indian Ocean (and Mayotte) Endemo-epidemic Currently assessed in Mayotte Important Low Expanding

Crimean—Congo hemorrhagic fever Bunyaviridae Nairovirus Ticks Ixodidae, of which Hyalomma sp. Wild mammals, vectors Europe, Asia, Africa Endemo-epidemic Low Important High Stable


Q fever or coxiellosis Coxiella burnetii Ticks Mammals Ubiquitous Endemic High Important Yes Current epidemics in Netherlands. Stable elsewhere

Trench fever Bartonella quintana Body lice Men Ubiquitous Endemic High Important Yes Expanding in homeless and highly precarious people

Oroya fever or Carrion’s disease Bartonella baciliformis Sand flies High valleys of Andes and intertropical area of Southern America Endemic High Important Yes Stable

Lyme disease Borrelia burgdorferi Ticks Ixodes sp. Rodents, deers, birds, vectors Northern hemisphere Endemic High Important Very low Expanding

Tick-borne relapsing fever Borrelia crocidurae Ticks Alectorobius sonrai Rodents Western Africa Endemic High Important Low Stable

Louse-borne relapsing fever Borrelia recurrentis Body lice Men Potentially ubiquitous Epidemic High in refugee camps High High Diminishing

Epidemic typhus Rickettsia prowazekii Body lice Men Ubiquitous, including African mountains and Latin America Endemo-epidemic Variable Important Low Stable

Boutonneuse fever (Mediterranean spotted fever) Rickettsia conorii Ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus Vectors, dogs, rodents Mediterranean area including South- Eastern France Endemic Mild Important Limited Possible expansion

Tick-borne African fever Rickettsia africae Ticks Amblyomma sp. Mammals Sub-Saharan Africa (mainly Southern) Endemic High Mild None Possible expansion, better diagnosed

Rocky Mountain spotted fever R.rickettsii Ticks Dermacentor sp. Rodents dogs Northern America Sporadic Mild Important Yes Expanding

Scrub typhus Orientia tsutsugamushi Mites Trumbicula sp. Rodents Far East Sporadic Mild Mild Yes Possible expansion, better diagnosed

Pestis Yersinia pestis Fleas Rat, Soil Ubiquitous Endemo-epidemic Low, except in Madagascar and Democratic Republic of the Congo Important Very high if untreated (low with antibiotics) Stable


Malaria Plasmodium sp. Mosquitoes Anopheles sp. Men (and apes?) Intertropical areas* Endemo-epidemic High Important High for P. falciparum Diminishing in Guyane and Mayotte*

Babesiosis Babesia sp. Ticks Wild mammals Ubiquitous Risk for splenectomized people in Europe Important number of human cases in USA High in Europe, low in USA Stable

Leishmaniosis Leishmania sp. Sand flies Mammals (including dogs) All continents, of which Europe, Guyane and Martinique Endemic Low Important Low for cutaneous form, high for visceral form Expanding in Guyane Influence of climate change in Europe?

Sleeping sickness 1 Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense Tsetse flies Wild great ungulates Eastern Africa Endemo-epidemic foci High Important Very high if untreated Expanding

Sleeping sickness 2 Trypanosoma brucei gambiense Tsetse flies Men (and pigs?) Western and Central Africa Endemo-epidemic foci High Important Very high if untreated Stable

Chagas disease Trypanosoma cruzi Triatominae Wild mammals, men Latin America (including Guyane) Endemic Misestimated Important Important Stable


Lymphatic filariosis Filariae Wuchereria bancrofti Brugia malayi Mosquitoes Aedes, Anopheles Culex Mansonia Men Africa, Indian Ocean (including Mayotte), Pacific (including French Polynesia, Wallis-et-Futuna), Asia Endemic Low Maybe important and invalidating None Diminishing

Loaiosis Filariae Loa loa Horse flies Chrysops Men Central Africa (forest) Endemic Low Important None Stable

Onchocercosis (river blindness) Filariae Onchocerca volvulus Black flies Men Western and Central Africa, Southern America Endemic Important Important None Strongly diminishing

Serous cavity filariosis (Mansonellosis) Filariae Mansonella sp. Ceratopogonidae Men Western and Central Africa, Southern America Endemic Important Low None Stable

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