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Recommendations for good practice

Table I.

Principal vectors (insects and ticks).

Classes Orders Families Hematophagous stages Biology of the hematophagy Preimaginal stages*
Culicidae (mosquitoes) Adult females Principally crepuscular for Aedes; Water
Principally nocturnal for Anopheles, Culex and Mansonia (stagnant or calm)

Simulidae (black flies) Adult females Diurnal Water (running)

Diptera Psychodidae (sand flies) Adult females Nocturnal Land (humus, animal litters)

Tabanidae (horse flies) Adult females Diurnal Semi-aquatic

Insects Ceratopogonidae Adult females Mainly crepuscular but variable among species Land (humus)

Glossinidae (tsetse flies) Adult males and females Diurnal In utero except land pupa

Siphonaptera (fleas) Numerous families Adult males and females Several blood meals per day Land (litters)

Hemiptera Heteroptera (typical bugs) Reduviidae (Rhodnius, Triatoma) Adult males and females, and immatures Nocturnal Land Hematophagous
Anoplura Pediculicidae (lice) Adult males and females, and immatures Several blood meals per day Land Hematophagous

Ixodidae (hard ticks) Adult males and females, and immatures One blood meal per stage that can last several days Land Hematophagous

Arachnids Acarina Argasidae (soft ticks) Adult males and females, and immatures Several blood meals per sage. Principally nocturnal Land Hematophagous

Trumbiculidae (Trumbicula) Larvae Lymph meal lasts several days Land

Preimaginal stages: eggs, larvae and pupae. An image is the adult arthropod.

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